Volume 7, Issue 1

In this issue:


  • GIS based Assessment of Noise Environment of Imphal City, Manipur (India): A Comprehensive Study
    Authors: Wazir Alam, Bindiya Aribam and Waikhom Roshan Singh
  • Abstract : Assessment of equivalent noise level was carried out within spatially distributed traffic junctions, residential colonies, commercial locations and silent zones of Imphal city for different time periods of the day. Moreover, a detail traffic noise assessment of two busy traffic junctions of the city were carried in in order to evaluate detail traffic noise scenario with respect to different traffic volume situations. The noise and geographic coordinate data from different locations of the city were further used for mapping of prediction of vulnerable noise zones of the study area using geostatistical interpolation method. The interpolated noise pollution maps revealed unsatisfactory noise environment of the city and highlight the vulnerable noise zones of the city that requires appropriate measures to control noise level.The study also highlighted and advocates the need of an appropriate initiatives for sustainably managing urban noise environment and ensuring public health safety that can be achieved by participation of various stakeholders in the form of increasing adequate of parking spaces, open spaces, effective traffic management, improvement of road conditions, construction flyovers, bye lanes and alternative roads.

  • Physico-Chemical Properties of Lateritic Soils in Ado-Ekiti, South Western Nigeria
    Authors: Osuji O. S and Akinwamide J.T
  • Abstract : The physico-chemical properties of lateritic soils in Ado Ekiti Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria were evaluated. The study area was divided into Six Zones: A total of 30 samples were collected with five samples per zone. Laboratory tests such as: X-ray fluorescence (X-RF) and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) in other to evaluate their chemical composition. Natural Moisture Content (NMC) , Specific gravity, Grain size analysis, Consistency tests ,were carried out on each of the samples the purpose of which to study their physical properties. These tests were carried out in accordance with (BS1377:1990). The laboratory results indicated that the NMC ranged from 1.1 to 18.7%; specific gravity ranged from 2.23 to 2.79 ; the liquid limit ranged from 25 to 65%, plastic limit ranged from 17 to 43%, plasticity index ranged from 10 to 30%; linear shrinkage ranged from 3.6 to 15.5%.The soils were classified as clay of low compressibility (CL) for zones 1 and 2, clay of high compressibility (CH) for Zone 3 samples 1,2 and 5 and Zone 4 sample 2,Zone 5 samples 2 and 5 and Zone 6 samples 1and 2 according to (USCS,1986) and A-2-4, A-2-6, A-6, and A-7-5. From the foregoing, the soils classified some as low plasticity, sandy gravelly clay, clayey soils and others as medium compressibility soils. Based on Sesquioxide (S-S) ratio the soils grouped into True laterite and lateritics soils which indicate poor laterisation for zones 1 and 2 while other zones have undergone considerable degree of laterisation. Major clay mineral found were: illite, heamatite, and to lesser amount of halloysite. It was concluded that the research work has provided information for all construction personnel within the study area. The soils are not expected to perform very well as concrete aggregates since they contain high amounts of SiO2 and Fe2O3.since the oxides have deleterious effects on construction materials, particularly concrete aggregate.

  • Prediction And Estimation Of Sediments Discharge From Kangimi Dam Reservoir Catchment, Kaduna, Nigeria
    Authors: Abdulkareem Ibrahim Ayinla, Agunwamba C Jona
  • Abstract : Sedimentation has been found to be a major future threat to water shortage and scarcity, as human activities and animal rearing aggravate its sources. There is need to provide the tools to predict and measure sediments, hence, this work aimed at providing a model to predict and estimate quantitatively sediment inflows for an area with herds’ activities. The work applied Global Information System to derive the catchment feature characteristics for various sub-catchments. Soil samples were randomly collected for particle size analysis using Bouyoucos method for soil erodibility determination, while water samples were collected from surface runoff for suspended sediment concentrations using filtration and drying methods. The sediment load was obtained by multiplying the discharge and suspended concentration, and then converted to kilogram per day/tones per day. A rating relationship between the sediment loads and discharges on slope, drainage areas and herds’ column, were used to determine the effects of sediment discharge characteristics. The prediction and estimation was done using Multivariate Universal Soil Loss Equation, thus, model formulation. The parameters of Universal Soil Loss Equation were evaluated from the standard in conjunction with global information system tool. However, the research provide the drainage areas, slope and four indices of soil erodibility to regressed against measured sediments from herds’ column, for determining the extent and severity of sediment generation from the catchment, hence, the model. The soil particle size indicated that soil aggregates were not stable and prone to sediment and erosion wash if agricultural land use, animal herdship and human activities, persist. The model predicted well with Modified Clay Ratio with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.83 and coefficient of correlation, R= 0.91 at 0.01 (p<0.01). The study shows that herds’ activities contributed to sediment yields as model reasonably matched with the measured data and moderately predicted within the data without deviation, and recommended the use of the model for the Kangimi dam reservoir sediment inflows among others compared.

  • Geo-Environmental Evaluation for Exploring Potential Soil Erosion Areas of Jainti River Basin Using AHP Model, Eastern India
    Authors: Tusar kanti Hembram and Sunil Saha
  • Abstract : This work aimed to explore soil erosion susceptibility zones of Jainti River basin, which is the 6th order tributary of Ajay River. A total of ten geo-environmental parameters i.e. land use and land cover, geomorphology, slope, drainage density, elevation, lineament, length of overland flow, vegetation cover, soil type and relative relief was selected based on collinearity statistics. Individual factor weights (Fi) and their sub-class weights (Vi) was calculated based on Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and summed up for producing a map of spatial soil erosion vulnerability. The result reveals that 19.97% (108.97 km2) of the study area, mainly the upper and middle parts of the catchment areas face highly to severe soil erosion problems due to higher elevation, slope and relief, lack of vegetation cover, existence of badland features. The accuracy of the result assessed through ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The Area Under Curve (AUC) is 0.771 resembles to the prediction correctness of 77.1%. It is concluded that this model is very useful for further planning regarding soil erosion problem and replacement of the quality of land in sustainable way.

  • Noise Levels in Dussehara at Mahewa, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
    Authors: Mohd Nafees and Satyendra Nath
  • Abstract : The present research focused on noise level monitoring during pre dussehara, post and during dussehara day’s at Mahewa, Naini Allahabad. The variation of noise levels L10, L90 and Leq were observed during pre dussehara ranges between 82.2- 86.2 dB, 67.0- 69.4 dB,77.36– 80.74 dB, followed by post dussehara 85.2-88.3 dB, 69.1-70.90 dB, 79.97-82.65 dB and during dussehara were 92.1-99.2dB, 68.9- 69.9 dB, 84.89– 89.35 dB respectively at day time (6:00 PM to 9:00 PM). At night time, the variation of noise level L10, L90 and Leq was observed during pre, post and dussehara between 58.7-79.9 dB, 42.1-62.8 dB, 53.31-74.12 dB, 62.6-80.6 dB, 42.3-63.6 dB, 56.00-75.08 dB, and 84.1-116.4 dB, 67.3-79.2 dB, 78.64-104.28 dB respectively. Present research was focused on semi urban area locality during pre, post and dusherra and also explore the main causes of noise pollution on during days.