Abstract : Evaporation occurs simultaneously and this process depends on solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. There is no any device for accurate direct measurement of evaporation from the sea surface, so many equations are used to estimate it from meteorological conditions. By using the Penman-Monteith equations, the daily evaporation rate of coastal water in front of Hurghada was estimated for four years (1999-2002). The result leading to the highest net evaporation occurred during the summers (June and July) and the lowest were in winters (January and December). The rates were fluctuating between 7.81-9.80 mm/day and net deposition occurred in winter months (January and November) and April, averaged between 2.48-5.05 mm/day. There is a direct proportion between net evaporation and air temperature and inversely proportional to the relative humidity. It is clear that the wind speed has affected on the evaporation rate. These consequences were similar to and conforms to previous researches, thereby the Penman-Monteith equations is desirable to estimate the evaporation rate of Hurghada coast.
Abstract : Aquifer characteristics influence the movement of groundwater and contaminants along with it. Formations comprising of top overburden soil crest, gravel, and weathered rock leading to fissured rock, functioning as flow media are found in the study region. Seepage from agricultural lands and Pravara canal is the chief source of recharge to groundwater and movement of contaminants. The capacity to hold, transmit, water and dissolved solution is measured in terms of Transmissivity, Storativity, and permeability of the formation. Pumping& Recovery tests are carried out on four open shallow wells in the study region. In the absence of data on long duration pumping test with regulated discharge, recovery test data is used to arrive at the aquifer parameters; Transmissivity, Storativity, permeability, radius of influence using modified formula. The average value of Transmissivity, Permeability for well 1 & 2 represent medium to good inflow with radius of influence of 114m & 121.75m respectively, while that for well 3 indicate medium to low inflow with radius of influence of 60.52m.The average value for well 4 indicate low inflow with radius of influence of 63.92m.
Abstract : Hill towns of the fragile Himalayas are facing a newly emerged problem of mismanaged and unplanned building construction. Anthropogenic and technogenic activities in the recent past have lead to several geomorphic and environmental problems. This problemhas become more dangerous because of material transformation of the hill slope in the fast growing towns. These materials replaced and transformed in unscientific manner cause environmental hazards. The fast growing towns and cities in Uttarankhand with changing pattern of housing is causing instability in the hill slopes. The geologically active and sensitive mountainous region of Kumaun Himalaya is prone to natural hazards and disaster. Almora town located at 29° 36'N latitude and 79° 39' E longitude lying in Kumaun Himalaya has been selected for the present study. Detailed study of Almora town was conducted to find out the rate of sediment mobilization due to unplanned building construction. Sediment mobilization is accelerating more problems in urban sprawl of Almora town area. Preliminary field investigation indicates that the demographic pressure without proper planning strategies is causing land degradation and socio-economic problems to a great extent. Urbanization in the hill slopes, if not planned properly, result in slope failures and ultimately causes damage to life and property.
Abstract : Dehrang dam located in Panvel tahsil of Raigad district is the main source of water supply to the city of Panvel in district Raigad. However, the storage capacity of the reservoir is decreasing thus causing the water scarcity. The sediments accumulated as a result of erosion at the bottom of the reservoir is affecting the storage capacity of the reservoir ultimately leading to water scarcity and thus affecting the increasing population of Panvel city. The resource conservation of the catchment area is useful to reduce the sedimentation of the reservoir for which the priority areas should be decided to implement the conservation measures. Watershed Erosion Response Model has the ability to decide the priority areas for the conservation. Prioritization for the conservation of Dehrang catchment has been carried out by applying ‘Watershed Erosion Response Model’ in the present study. The remote sensing data and GIS techniques have also been found useful to apply this model. This model can be effectively applied to plan the resource conservation in the catchments of other reservoirs to mitigate the problem of sedimentation followed by water scarcity.
Abstract : An environmental hazard is any condition, process or state adversely affecting the environment; it can cause widespread harm to humans and the physical environment in the fragile system like the Himalaya. An environmentally sensitive area suffering from extreme events such as – landslides, cloudbursts, earthquakes etc from degradation processes, is selected for the present study. The study area is tectonically active and prone to hazard and disaster very often. A detailed field investigation was conducted in the study area to find out the impact of processes causing environmental degradation. In the recent past these processes are rapidly increasing due to increasing phase of human activities; causing damage to life and property in the Munsyari block specifically and the Himalayan region in general. Madkot, Walthi, Kwiti, Kultham,La, Jhekala, Alam, TallaBainskot, Nachani, Kota, Dor and many more villages were severally affected due to the extreme events in the past 5 years. Therefore detailed field investigations in the area are required, so that measures regarding the same can be implemented to mitigate the impact of hazards and disasters in the region. Regional planning through government departments and co-ordination of government officials with the local communities can be helpful in this regard.