Abstract : Chemicals are the building blocks for products that meet our most fundamental needs for food, shelter, and health. The chemical industries discharge contaminated waste water that requires appropriate treatment before safe discharge in the environment. Effluent is toxic in nature, due to Presence of aromatic compounds (like benzene, toluene, and xylene). The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of ultrasound technique that has a broad range of industrial applications and its potential for water and waste water treatment. The efficiency of the usual cleaning process to heat carbonaceous compounds (biological or physical / chemical treatment) is limited. In such circumstances, ultrasound seems to be a promising technology for waste water treatment. The heat from the cavity implosion decomposes water in to extremely reactive hydrogen atoms (Ho) and hydroxyl radicals (OHo). Thus in such a molecular environment organic compounds and inorganic compounds are oxidized or reduced depending on their reactivity. This method is highlighted while some of the future challenges like decreasing the cost of operation are considered. Feasibility of ultrasound technique is being evaluated.
Abstract : Statutory and case law at the provincial and local level provides critical legal frameworks for water management in China. As many provincial and local governments struggle to improve efficiency in water management and resolve conflicts over water usage, they must continually assess the efficacy of their national and local water laws and regulating bodies. China's water laws have undergone reforms but are still disconnected and overlapping. This paper assesses China's state water law. It takes first steps toward a comprehensive state water resources act by setting out an analytical framework for a reform process. The methodology of the paper focuses on issues and conflicts in water management at the state, and local level. It amalgamates management and legal analyses that incorporate the diverse perspectives of state water stakeholders. The results are identification of management issues, profiles of provincial water laws and regulating bodies, and explorations of legal reforms that are available to the national government.
Abstract : The increase in the number of vehicles has resulted in a continuous growth in the consumption of fuel in Cameroon; and has contributed to the increase of Cameroon's GHG emissions. GHG emissions inventory from the road transport sector during the period 1995-2008 reported in this paper was conducted following the recommendations of the UNFCCC. The study also includes the indicators that are the major contributors to Cameroon's GHG emissions. The direct GHG emissions are calculated on a bottom-up Tier 2 methodology described by the IPCC guidelines and Kaya's approach, except for CH4 and N2O, CO2 emission factors which are specific to Cameroon. Assessment results show that GHG emissions have increased by 50.50% during the period 1995-2008. Cameroon's road transport sector emits into the atmosphere an average of 1421.4 kilotons of CO2 equivalent per year, 852.5 (59.98%) and 568.9 (40.02%) kilotons of CO2 equivalent per year for gasoline and diesel vehicles respectively. CO2 emissions in the road transport sector represent 34.33% of the total CO2 emissions in Cameroon due to the energy sector. The results suggest future policy implementation to support sustainable alternative fuel and equally the deployment of low-carbon technology for vehicles, rejuvenation of Cameroon's vehicle fleet, improve road traffic and encourage public transport.
Abstract : Trace metal contamination of soil and surface waters arising from increased emissions from industries,traffic, auto-mechanic activities and agriculture raise concern on human health and environmental quality. The aim of this study was to find practical and cost-effective measures to reduce metal uptake in crops grown on metal contaminated soils. A laboratory batch experiment using 6 potential mineral-organic amendment combinations in the ratio 1: 2, (a)composted Farm yard manure (cFYM) + Gravel sludge ( GrS), (b) Vemicompost ( VC) + GrS, (c) composted sewage sludge (cSS)+ GrS , ( d) Red mud (RM)+ cFYM), (e) RM + VC, (f) cSS+ RM, were used to treat trace metal contaminated soil in a completely randomized pot experiment using Amaranthus viridis as a test crop. Result showed that all the amendment combinations had varied potential to reduce metal uptake by Amaranthus viridis when compared to control. There was appreciable reduction in metal leachability across all the amendments: Cd (<51%), Cu (<67%), Zn (<34%) and Pb (<69%) on the average when compared to controls, with a concurrent reduction of uptake into Amaranthus viridis root and shoot tissues (Cd < 62%, Pb < 68%, Cu< 66% and Zn 56%) on the average. Dry matter yield in the amendments is in the order cFYM + GrS> cFYM +RM> cSS+GrS>cSS+RM>Control>VC+RM >VC+GrS.Acid extractable (DTPA) fractions of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were reduced by up to 76%, 79%, 65% and 49%, respectively in amended soils. Investigations on long term effects of metal mobility is recommended.
Abstract : A study was carried out on a wild herb Hypericum sinaicum (Family: Hypericaceae) in Saint Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt to increase the understanding about some applications of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in analysis, management and making suitable decisions in plant conservation strategies. Also to detect the effect of environmental factors (Topography) on the distribution of Hypericum sinaicum as well as geographical attributes. The results showed that it was found that H. sinaicum has a narrow range of distribution between 1515 and 2036 m. It was shown that the highest presence for H. sinaicum was in elevation between 1800-2000m (42.7%) and the lowest presence detected was at elevation between 1400-1600m (0.8%). Extracted data came from 3d analysis by GIS found that H. sinaicum communities strongly affected by aspect and this shiny appears in the species distribution within special aspects. H. sinaicum was recorded at North East (44%), North (15.5%), East (15.5%), North West (13.8%), West (7.7%), South (1.7%), South East (0.8%) and Flat (0.8%), there was no records for the plant at the South West aspect. The slope degree of the populated sites was very high, as the species was found in slope aspect between 89.98 and 90 degree. Results showed that topography (elevation, aspect and slope) influences on physical and chemical properties of soil, plant morphology and plant community structure.
Abstract : Prediction and mapping of potential suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species is critical for monitoring and restoration of their declining native populations in their natural habitat, artificial introductions, or selecting conservation sites, and conservation and management of their native habitat. We used technique called maximum entropy distribution modeling or Maxent for predicting potential suitable habitat for Hypericum sinaicum, a threatened and endangered species in Saint Katherine Protectorate (SKP), South Sinai, Egypt, using small number of occurrence records. Our objectives were to: (1) predict suitable habitat distribution for threatened herb H. sinaicum using a small number of occurrence records to inform conservation planning in Saint Katherine Protectorate; and (2) identify the environmental factors associated with H. sinaicum habitat distribution. Results showed that the environmental variable with highest gain when used in isolation is bio9 (Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter). The approach presented here appears to be quite promising in predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species with small sample records and can be an effective tool for biodiversity conservation planning, monitoring and management.
Abstract : The study was conducted to investigate the variation in Plant metabolites adaptive responses which is due to the spatial variation (altitude).In this investigation, samples of two plant species, Fagonia mollis and Zilla spinosa was collected during two seasons, from three locations at different elevation in, south Sinai, Egypt. Evaluation of present methods used for analyzing the major biochemical contents (Soluble Carbohydrate, Water Soluble protein, Proline, Phenol and Photosynthetic Pigments). Results were statistically analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and Post hoc-LSD tests (the least significant difference). Prominent variation was recorded as regards the biochemical constituents of the plants among the different wadis in all stages of growth .It is evident from this study that different biochemical attributes varied significantly during different seasons. It was found that spatial variation play a great role in the variation of these contents resulting from variation in altitudinal and latitudinal variation that lead to variation in climatic conditions and consequently make changes in all ecosystem components.
Abstract : Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) is a native of Iran oil seed. This crop is compatible with the environmental conditions in the country as well; this is especially true in areas exposed to non-biological stresses such as drought and salinity. The study of abiotic stress in plants has advanced considerably in recent years. However, the majority of studies testing the response of plants to changes in environmental conditions have focused on a single stress treatment applied to plants under controlled conditions. In contrast, in the field, a number of different stresses can occur simultaneously. These may include conditions such as drought, extreme temperature or high salinity and may alter plant metabolism in a novel manner that may be different from that caused by each of the different stresses applied individually1,2. Drought and heat shock represent an excellent example of two different stresses that occur in the field simultaneously, especially in semi-arid or drought-stricken areas1-4. Although drought stress and heat shock have been extensively studied5-7, relatively little is known about how their combination impact plants. We identified sucrose accumulation as a possible defense mechanism of plants against this stress combination. Our long-term objective is to develop different plants and crops with enhanced tolerance to a combination of drought stress and heat shock. A combination of drought stress and heat shock is common to many semi-arid or drought-stricken regions of Nevada. Developing plants and crops with enhanced tolerance to this stress combination will contribute significantly to Nevada agriculture and economy and directly address one of the major NAES research priorities. The results of causality analysis for correlation coefficients between the grain yields with the regression model traits showed that either three moisture regimes, the grain yield per bush is most influenced by the number of grain per boll and the number of boll per bush. But these direct effects are reduced by their negative and indirect effects. The 1000 grain weight has positive and relatively high effects on grain yield per bush in both stress and stress free environments, but because of important indirect and negative affection by the number of boll per bush, the number of grain per boll and the days to %100 flowering, it showed positive and relatively low correlation with the grain yield per bush. In general, the results indicate that the number of grain per boll and the number of boll per bush can be used as two appropriate selection indexes in safflower breeding programs in order to improved grain yield. Meanwhile it seems that the varieties with more 1000 grain weight produce more grain yield in both conditions.
Abstract : Anthropogenic activities near or within the wildlife habitats are threatening the wildlife with exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants. The wildlife horboured in these reserves are at risk of getting expose to automobile exhaust, industrial gases and suspended particulate matters. The world famous Tiger reserve, Ranthambore National Park, Sawaimadhopur, Rajasthan (India) was selected for study. Restrictions on the sampling because of wildlife Protection Act (1972) prevents taking of samples of living tissues to analyse levels of contaminants that wildlife may be carrying and in determining the critical levels that may be detrimental for their survival, well-being and reproduction. Feces of wild mammals one as noninvasive, nondestructive bioindicator of assessing environmental contamination. Feces of wild mammals, vegetation, soil and water of Ranthambore National Park, Sawaimadhopur, Rajasthan showed good concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn).
Abstract : Dual application of municipal compost and elemental sulfur may reduce soil pH and increase phosphorous and some micronutrients availability in soil. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of supplemented compost with sulfur on phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese and copper availability in soil. A factorial completely randomized design with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. CV. Alvand) was established in the greenhouse, having two main factors including compost and elemental sulfur with four replicates. The compost treatments were consisted of 0, 50 and 100 ton/ha denoted as Co, Cl and C2, respectively. The elemental sulfur including 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 kg/ha applications represented as So, Sl, S2 and S3, respectively. loamy sand soil samples collected from the depth of 0-30 cm, powdered compost and powdered sulfur were air dried and passed through the 4-mm, 1-mm and 100Ám sieves respectively. Compost and sulfur contents were mixed with soil filled in plastic pots.Wheat seeds were sown in pots and after 75 days of the growth period crops were harvested and P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in crop extracts were measured by atomic absorption system of Perkin-Elmer 3110 model. The results indicated that the shoot and root growth as well as nutrients uptake are increased by increasing compost content. However, in most cases there was no significant difference between C1 and C2. The increasing of sulfur content up to 1000Kg/ha, caused a significant increase in wheat root and shoot growth as well as nutrient uptake. But they were reduced by increasing sulfur level from S2 to S3. It can be concluded that application of 50 ton/ha compost and 1000 kg/ha of elemental sulfur can improve wheat growth and nutrients uptake from municipal compost.
Abstract : The effect of dyeing industry effluent on agricultural soil, growth pattern and yield of wheat (Triticum vulgare) crop were investigated. The study involved cultivation of wheat on the tub soil through irrigation with the effluent collected from Bangladesh Dyeing and Finishing Industry ltd., Savar. Both treated and untreated effluent was analyzed and utilize in irrigation for crop cultivation. By studying various physico chemical properties and heavy metal and in terms of SAR and SSP value it was found that the treated effluent from the dyeing industry was suitable for irrigation. On irrigation of soil with the treated effluent an increase in water soluble salts, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron contents of the soil for effluent concentration of 2.5 to 5% were observed but all these parameters were found to decrease when the soil is irrigated with the effluent, concentration from 10% and above. Plant height, leaf area, seed dry weight, root dry weight, number of seeds obtained from the wheat plant, protein and carbohydrate content in wheat seeds obtained from the plant irrigated with 2.5, 5% treated effluent also showed an increasing trend and decreased from 10% and above. In case of untreated effluent no sequential order was observed for the above mentioned parameters and showed a lower data value than the treated effluent. However the rate of seed germination decreased in both the cases (treated and untreated effluent) than the control but treated effluent showed a better result than the untreated effluent.
Abstract : The current research work was conducted to find out the fish production potential of Goverdhan Sagar, a medium class water body of Udaipur in southern Rajasthan. Goverdhan Sagar is a shallow lake with a maximum depth of 7.62 meters and a shoreline of 3888.8 meters with relatively fringed margins and an area of 30.81 ha. Attempt has been made to assess the current water quality status of Goverdhan Sagar and to establish its relation with phytoplankton and primary productivity to suggest proper management practice for getting the optimum fish production. Physico-chemical parameters of Goverdhan Sagar were found to be congenial for productivity throughout the study period. The average water quality parameters of the lake during the study period were: air temperature-30.75 ║C, water temperature-28.57║C, depth of visibility-96.23 cm., pH-7.18, EC-381.8 ÁS cm-1, dissolved oxygen-5.56 mg l-1, free CO2-6.56 mg l-1, carbonates-35.41 mg l-1 , bicarbonates-137.44 mg l-1, total alkalinity-185.73 mg l-1 , orthophosphates-0.13 mg l-1 , nitrate-nitrogen-0.46 mg l-1 , GPP-0.42 g C m3 h-1 , NPP-0.26 g C m3 h-1 , CR-0.17 g C m3 h-1. The Average phytoplankton count in Goverdhan Sagar was 36.71 Nos/ml distributed in 29 genera showed the order of dominance - Chlorophyceae > Bacillariophyceae > Cyanophyceae > Desmidiaceae. For effective channelization of the energy stocking of suitable fish species is also suggested.
Abstract : Disposal of biomass wastes, produced in different agro-industrial activities, is normally an environmental problem. A key for such condition is the utilization of these residues for the production of energetic solid bio-fuel by increasing their proximate and ultimate properties of biomass. The aim of the present study agro-industrial wastes like press dug, saw mill dust, ground nut husk, jatropa seed cake, castor seed cake and tamarind fruit shell were analyzed for the feasibility for production of bio-briquettes. Agro-industrial wastes moisture content, bulk density, particle density, ash content, fixed carbon, calorific value, SEM and FTRI analysis were done by using standard procedures. The results concluded that combination of raw materials used during the production of bio-briquettes will give better mechanical and combustion properties than single raw material used. The final disposal of biomass wastes from agricultural activities is usually an environmental problem. Hence these agro-wastes utilized for production of briquettes turn out to be an environmental friendly fuel that is relatively simple to use and reduces environmental pollution.
Abstract : The dye decolourizing isolates, Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp and Proteus sp were isolated from the textile effluent samples and Shiegella sp, Morganella sp and Klebsiella sp were isolated from sludge collected from AmanishahNala, Sanganer, Jaipur. Different parameters such as various carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature and pH were optimized for decolourization of Light Red Dye by using bacterial isolates. The present study confirms the ability of all textile effluent isolates for decolourization of light red dye showing 80% decolourization whereas sludge isolates showed 40% decolourization under optimum conditions. Among all the isolates, Proteus sp from textile effluent and Klebsiella sp from sludge were found to be most efficient in dye decolourization. All parameters studied in this paper were found to be effective for all isolates. The selected bacterium shows higher decolourization in shaking condition as compared to static condition. The optimum pH obtained for decolourization of Light Red dye by all bacterial strains was 8.0-8.5. Although, good decolourization efficiency even in alkaline region was observed. The optimum temperature was found to be 550C. Enhanced decolourization was observed in presence of glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract & urea as a nitrogen source. The results reported here warrant further investigation to establish the usefulness of these isolates for bioremediation and biodegradation application such as waste water treatment. High decolourization extent and facile conditions show the potential for this bacterial strain to be used in the biological treatment of dyeing mill effluents.
Abstract : A study was conducted to analyse the shades and colour fastness property of silk fabrics dyed with colour extracted from mahua bark at different concentrations of mordants. Four types of mordants, viz. CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3, alum and citric acid, were used for the study. The colours of the fabrics were quantified with the help of Hunterlab colour scale. For mahua bark dye, the maximum ?E* value (52.95▒0.29) was observed for 3% CuSO4 mordant treated samples. However, the values were not significantly different from 2% and 1% CuSO4 treated samples. The change in chroma was maximum for the 3% Al2(SO4)3 mordant (34.89▒0.33), though that offered by 1% and 2% Al2(SO4)3, and 1% and 3% CuSO4 were not significantly different from the above. The colour fastness property was measured in a scale of 1-5 (very poor, poor, fair, good and excellent). All the mordants except alum helped in maintaining good to excellent fastness to washing. The staining on undyed silk exhibited excellent colour fastness for all three mordants except CuSO4, which showed good to excellent colour fastness. The dry crocking and wet crocking fastness characteristics were also compared for all the treatments. The specimen dyed with alum, Al2(SO4)3 and citric acid exhibited moderate light fastness whereas specimen dyed with CuSO4 exhibited fairly good colour fastness. The samples without mordants showed poor fastness. The antimicrobial profile indicated that the mahua bark dye was not sensitive to the growth of E. coli, Streptococcus sp. and Salmonella as indicated by the poor zone of inhibition. However, it was sensitive to S. leuteus. Similarly, the fungal isolates, viz. Aspergillus nigricans and Candida albicans used for the study were resistant to the dye.
Abstract : Analysis of total ozone column at Dumdum (22.5oN, 88.5oE), India during, before and after Diwali reveals an elevation in total ozone during Diwali and after few days for the period 2000-2010 due to spontaneous bursts in the absence of sunlight - namely, the exuberant mass of colour emitting sparklers which are lit during the Diwali night festivities that occurred every year during October and November. During burning, a significant portion of the emitted light by the sparklers which is composed of an oxidizer (potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate or potassium perchlorate), a fuel, regulators and binders constitutes a wavelength below 240 nm that is enough to dissociate atmospheric molecular oxygen into atomic oxygen enabling the formation reaction of ozone to takes place.
Abstract : Cyanide hydratase [E.C. 220.127.116.11] is an intracellular enzyme detected in few fungi and bacteria. It catalyzes the reaction of hydration of cyanide, a potent toxin, to form formamide, a non-poisonous amide intermediate of cyanide degradation. When asked to name a poison, everybody nominates cyanide. This evil reputation of cyanide worth paying attention because of its increasing occurrence due to natural synthesis and also due to the large scale industrial production of inorganic cyanide as CN- and HCN as well as organic cyanides as nitriles, RCN. As cyanide is highly toxic, it must be detoxified in the effluent before discharging into the sewers. Although several processes of cyanide detoxification are available, the biological treatment of cyanide waste is cost-effective and ecofriendly. Cyanide hydratase is becoming important green catalyst for this process, which converts cyanide into formamide and ammonia without employing extreme conditions of reaction temperature and hydrogen ion concentration. The present project was undertaken with the view of approaching to the bioremediation of cyanide effluent. Potential cyanide degrader actinomycetes, identified as Micromonospora braunna was isolated and acclimatized in the minimal medium containing 1000 ppm cyanide. The detection of formamide in the culture broth confirmed the cyanide hydratase activity. 76.66 enzyme units were detected in the production broth supplemented with dextrose as carbon source and potassium cyanide as sole nitrogen source. The enzyme cyanide hydratase was extracted and its reaction parameters were determined. The kinetics studied revealed the Km value as 33mM and Vmax 39 Ámoles/ml/min.
Abstract : Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) is a native of Iran oil seed. This crop is compatible with the environmental conditions in the country as well; this is especially true in areas exposed to non-biological stresses such as drought and salinity. In 2000, a research was conducted to investigate the relationship between two sets of variables. This research was in split- plot form with completely random block designs, twice the normal (7 irrigations) and two drought (6 and 5 irrigations, respectively) using 26 spring safflower varieties. In this study, several parameters were measured and studied: days to germination, days to stem growth, days to 50% budding, days to 50% flowering, days to 100% flowering, bush height, number of bolls per plant, seeds per boll, 1000 grain weight, plant performance, and oil content measuring. In this study, canonical analysis was performed between the two groups of phonological characteristics and traits related to yield and yield components. The results showed the impact of 1000 grain weight and yield per plant on W1 function and in terms of severe stress. But function V1 is influenced by some phonological traits especially the number of days to 100% flowering, the number of days to 50% flowering and the number of days to 50% budding. In terms of moderate stress (6 times irrigations), W1 function is greatly influenced by 1000-grain weight but some phonological traits like days to 100% flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% budding impress function V1. In fact for the selection of cultivars for height yield under both stress conditions, these can be considered as an appropriate criterion: days to 100% flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% budding. Based on the results of canonical correlation analysis and in terms of non-stress conditions, W1 function is influenced by 1000-grain weight but V1 function is influenced by some phonological traits such as the days to 100% flowering and days to 50% flowering. So for the selection of cultivars for height yield under normal conditions, we can consider the days to 100% flowering and the days to 50% flowering as appropriate phonological criterion.
Abstract : Actinomycetes are promising tool to control plant disease and to promote plant growth. In ayurved system of medicine rhizome portion of Curcuma longa L. was used as an antiseptic. Antimicrobial substances released from these plants diffuse into the surrounding soil area of the plant. Actinomycetes which grow in these areas are resistant to these substances. Different types of pesticide and chemicals are also used to control plant pest. The residual component of these substances diffuses into the soil and causes soil pollution. The present study was carried out to search actinomycetes which can be used to degrade the residual components of pesticide, chemicals and antibiotics. Total four soil samples were collected from the villages around Barshi, Dist. Solapur. Total six isolates were tested for their ability to grow in presence of antibiotics such as penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol gentamycin and tetracycline on Glycerol aspargine agar containing these antibiotics separately by spot inoculation technique after incubation at an ambient temperature for 5 to 7 days. Out of six actinomycetes isolates 83.33% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 66.66% were resistant to penicillin and 50% were resistant to tetracycline, while all the actinomycetes isolates were sensitive to gentamycin and streptomycin. The actinomycetes resistant to penicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline may have potential to produce antibiotics of this category and they will be studied further for the production of this type of antibiotics which will be used to prevent human and plant bacterial and fungal diseases. They may have ability to degrade chemical or antibiotics and may be used to control soil pollution to some extent.