Current Issue : Volume 3, Issue 5

In this issue:

REVIEW ARTICLES

  • E-Waste Management, Disposal and Its Impacts on the Environment
    Authors: Sivakumaran Sivaramanan

    Abstract : Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is becoming major thread to the whole world. Its toxic emissions mixed with virgin soil and air and causing harmful effects to the entire biota either directly or indirectly. Direct impacts include release of acids, toxic compounds including heavy metals, carcinogenic chemicals and indirect effects such as bio magnification of heavy metals. Many private firms are involved in collecting, dismantling, separation and exporting e-wastes for recyclers. However, strict regulations are currently being followed as on approval of such firms such as e-steward certification by Basel action network in US, they also involved in public awareness programs; this review is based on collected information from various journal articles, websites including the technical note by Greenpeace international. Further, it analyzes the current progress on e-waste management worldwide.

RESEARCH ARTICLES

  • Assessment of Meteorological Drought in Satna District, M.P., India
    Authors: Pushpendra Singh Rajpoot and Ajay Kumar

    Abstract : Rainfall data of 60 years of Satna were analyzed for drought year interpretation which can be used long term hydrological activity system planning in the area. Meteorological records of Satna district shows that maximum rain 1359.1 mm is in1971 and minimum rainfall is 326.5 mm in 1979. Annual average rainfall is 870.78 mm. The district witness almost two drought year and one heavy rainfall year in one decade. To reduce the problem of water scarcity in drought years, proper rain water harvesting must be done.

  • Measuring Environmental Awareness in Nineteen States in India
    Authors: P. Harju-Autti

    Abstract : In order to improve environmental awareness, it is important to understand the current situation: what is the level of environmental awareness today and which factors affect it. When studying or improving the level of environmental awareness, the basic problem is the lack of a universal method for measuring and comparing environmental awareness. This pilot study aims at tackling this challenge. A modern easy-to-use internet-based tool was developed to measure environmental awareness in different countries/states. As a case study, the levels of environmental awareness was measured and compared in 19 states in India. Moreover, opinions on the state of the environment in different states of India were compared. As a result, both the state of the environment in different states of India and the environmental awareness were found to vary remarkably within India. The results showed that the best perceived state of the environment was found in the Far Eastern states, the Northern states and Kerala. The best levels of environmental awareness were found in Maharashtra, Far East states and West Bengal. Most room for development for both the states of the environment and for the environmental awareness was found in Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Jharkhand. We can conclude that the methodology developed in this pilot study can be well applied to national and international comparisons of the levels of environmental awareness even globally.

  • Field Study of Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Classrooms of Cameroon
    Authors: Nematchoua Modeste Kameni a, René Tchinda b Noél Djongyang

    Abstract : Thermal comfort is an important factor in a classroom. This paper presents the results of a field study campaign in three classrooms of the University of Yaounde I in Cameroon. An adaptive approach was used. The questionnaire was formulated according to the adaptive and statistical model prescribed by UNI EN ISO 10551. Various values of air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were measured at the same time students were filling the questionnaire. The study was conducted during three seasons (little rainy season, little dry season, and great rainy season). Several correlations were established according to the model of Fanger (PMV, PPD) and that of Wray. The temperatures of neutrality for the three seasons were found between 23.4 C and 25.7 C. The vote of thermal acceptability showed that during the three seasons, 66.02 % of the students found their environment acceptable, while the votes of thermal preference were: "want warmer" during the little rainy season, "want no change" during the little dry season and "want cooler" during the great rainy season.

  • A Study of Knowledge on Consequences and Practices about Environmental Pollution of Secondary level Students' in Bangladesh
    Authors: Mirza Md. Moyen Uddin

    Abstract : The article examined mainly the environmental knowledge on consequences and practice regarding environmental pollution of the students of secondary level formal education. Data were collected from 220 students of secondary level education of Dhaka and Rajshahi division of Bangladesh purposively through questionnaire between March to June 2013. In the study assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results showed that in several cases the students have the misconception of environmental knowledge regarding pollution. But most of cases, they have the rational and positive thinking about environmental knowledge on impact and practice. Finally the article concluded that there was a need to intensify students' awareness regarding environmental knowledge on consequences and practices for the better management, protect from pollution and gain expected sustainable development of present and future Bangladesh.jj

  • Applied Investigation of Effluent Wastewater of Desalination Systems: South Pars Gas Company
    Authors: Reza Karimi, Farshad Farahbod

    Abstract : The purpose of this pretreatment process is softening the wastewater as much as possible to prepare the feed stream for salt production units and also the first stage of processes related to zero discharge desalination (ZDD). The basic parameters such as the effectiveness of three commercial mineral coagulants, Aluminum Sulfate, Al2(SO4)3 , Ferric Sulfate, Fe2(SO4) and Ferric Chloride, FeCl3 , individually in removing of the total hardness, the optimized amounts of Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydroxide and the optimum mixing rate of the first reactor are investigated in the laboratory. The effluent waste water of the desalination systems of the gas complexes is treated in the proposed treated waste water process to produce potable water and salt at final stages and its superiority of this wark. Main properties of clarified produced water such as total hardness, alkalinity and total dissolved solid, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity; Calcium hardness and Magnesium hardness are evaluated in each run. Comparing the results reveals the optimum values of the basic conditions such as the amount of soda, sodium carbonate, coagulant and mixing rate of first pretreatment reactor to improve the performance of zero discharge desalination process.

  • Implications of Constructed Wetlands Wastewater Treatment for Sustainable Planning in Developing World
    Authors: Alagbe, Oluwole A. and Alalade, Gbenga M.

    Abstract : Wastewater is a necessary by-product of human activities in his built environment. A sustainable wastewater treatment infrastructure plays a very important role in order to achieve best practices in man's built environment. The paper adopted a qualitative research approach to examine the wastewater planning and treatment facilities in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria and the implications its processes, products and potentials have for sustainable campus and community planning. It reviewed existing literature providing an overview of wastewater treatment strategies and technologies while highlighting their essential features. Interview of stakeholders responsible for wastewater treatment in the community and on-site case study inspection formed the basis for the result deductions. Physical planning and layout, operation and maintenance cost, infrastructural facilities and equipment to compliment effective functioning of Covenant University Constructed Wetland Wastewater Treatment Plant (CU-CWWTP) were examined. Result showed that the initial cost of erecting a constructed wetland wastewater treatment plant is enormous, but highly cost-effective in terms of operation and maintenance. Furthermore, wastewater is effectively treated and transmitted as dischargeable safe water with advantage of non-toxic fertilizer as an end-product. It is recommended that the CU-CWWTP model should be understudied by community administrators at all governance level with a bid to deploying same for effective wastewater treatment in communities in developing nations.

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

  • Study of Ash Slurry Percentage in High Concentration Slurry Disposal System
    Authors: S. S. Bagchi, Velmurugan Selveraj and Neha Mahore

    Abstract : Fly ash disposal through high concentration ash disposal system (HCSD) is followed in many coal based thermal power plants in India. Efforts to reduce the dilution of the slurry will result in energy conservation as well as water conservation. The latter is even more important to overcome the problem of excess water consumption. To evaluate the effectiveness of the slurry disposal system, it is important to measure the concentration of ash in the slurry being transported through high concentration slurry disposal system (HCSD). Attempts have been made to obtain the exact slurry concentration and water retention capacity of fly ash through laboratory experiments. It is observed that the density of slurry varies from 1.17 to 1.60 for different concentration of the slurry and water holding capacity of ash increases with the increase in ash concentration. Maximum possible water recovery is observed between 57-58% of total water used for the slurry concentration.

  • Effects of Water Soluble Polysaccharide of Phellinus Merrillii on Laboratory Rats (Albino Mice)
    Authors: Pawar P. R., Lolage Y.P., V.A. Pawar., Komal Chawkade

    Abstract : Phellinus merrillii is a non-edible, very common mushroom found on a jack fruit tree mostly used in western part of Maharashtra. It is used by tribal people to cure sour mouth; excessive salivation etc. Variety of experimental systems is used to screen toxicity including animals. In the present study rats were used for the experiments. The water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) complex has been isolated by chilled alcohol extraction method from Phellinus merrillii and purified to study its effect on Albino mice. Different doses (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% & 100%) of solutions mixed with wheat flour and given to each mouse each day for 8 days. And their physical and histological effects were studied. Maximum hair loss and sleeping mode is observed when the dose of the extracted polysachharides is increased on mice. Stool color of the mice also changes with increasing concentration of polysaccharides. Harmful effects of extracted polysaccharides are observed on kidney, liver, spleen and pancreases.