Abstract : Water resource management has become a challenge in developing countries as the infrastructural development has not kept pace with population growth and urbanization. Even though India is endowed with a network of rivers, the level of water resource availability is still insufficient to meet national demand. With the issues of water scarcity, the wastewater reuse is one of the important methods to save water resource. In the present work, we have discussed the critical issues and opportunities of reusing the wastewater, which helps to overcome the demand of water supply. We have also suggested the recommendations and policy implementations for safe consumption of wastewater reuse in irrigation and various purposes. This article shows the importance of wastewater utilization, and the new and innovative technology and policies which encourage the use of wastewater as a new or reuse resource. The reusing wastewater address the problem of water scarcity and other environmental problems, which reflect the need of environment assessment and able to achieve sustainable management of wastewater.
Abstract : Pahuj Reservoir, situated at north east part of district Jhansi, is the sole source of drinking water for the local people. The geochemical water quality of the reservoir was found under the influence of seasonal variation due to phosphate carbonate rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation. Hence, a detailed and systematic study was carried out to assess the concentration of major ions like HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ in reservoir for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon in 2010. Through the statistical analysis it was observed that concentration of major ions in reservoir was found higher in pre-monsoon followed by post-monsoon and monsoon.
Abstract : The study was conducted in Chaka Block of Allahabad District, the project area has source of water from treated sludge irrigated water from Ganga Treatment Plant (60 MLD, Naini). The area is situated on the right bank of Yamuna River in South of Allahabad City, which is located at 25.8 N latitude and 81.5 E longitudes. Soil and water samples were collected at different intervals (November to March, days) depths (0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60 cm, respectively) of soil columns. The analysis of the values in tables was done by the statically. Design (Two way analyses without replication). It was found that the higher concentration for the soil parameters were in the surface of the soil layer 0-15 cm and then decrease due to different depths of soil layer up to the 45-60 cm. It was observed that the sewage irrigated water at the farmer's field was taken during different intervals as though it was required for irrigating purpose in the farmer's field. The higher concentration for the heavy metals was found for Pb 0.43 mg/L, Cd 0.15 mg/L, Ni 0.21 mg/L. The values were found to be under the permissible limit according to guidelines.
Abstract : The study focussed on the assessment of physicochemical parameters of soil samples from Tingroi hills in Lunghar village of Ukhrul District in Manipur, to find out the possible reason for its infertile nature. The samples from the study sites along with control soils were collected and subjected to physicochemical parameter, macro and micro nutrient analyses. All the results were analyzed for its influence over the fertility factors of the soil and further compared with control soils to identify the factors responsible for its infertility. This was the first of its kind and a maiden attempt to study about the quality of the soil in order to enhance its fertility. The results showed that the acidic nature of the soil, shallow soil horizon; presence of high amount of Iron oxides; less Electrical Conductivity, fluctuating Cation Exchange Capacity and higher concentration of micro nutrients were the considerable factors. Based on the results, reclamation measures such as liming of soil, cropping pattern, sequence of cropping relevant to soil and environmental conditions, have been recommended. Hence the study have shown insights of the status of soil quality of Ukhrul District for its possible reclamation measures and also warrants for the need of continued monitoring to assess the complete soil profile in terms of all its physicochemical, biological and environmental factors and to devise management strategies, towards restoring the fertility of the soil.
Abstract : The main objective of the study is to design and estimate water distribution network and underground drainage system for a residential layout of Vijayanagara 2nd stage of Mysore city using LOOP and SEWER software. The project area is 7.9 hectares consists of 353 sites. The water supply system is designed for this layout. The reliable source of water supply for this layout is mainly from Vanivilas water supply board. The present study provides estimation of overall cost of the project. The major cost components like pipe cost, manholes, laying of sewer pipe lines, are included in the analysis. Total cost of UGD for the layout is estimated to be (in 1000) 8817.56.