Volume 6, Issue 4

In this issue:


  • Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Trace Elements in Soil of Gazipur Industrial Area, Bangladesh
    Authors: Sharmine Akter Simu1*, Mohammed Jamal Uddin1, Ratan Kumar Majumder2, Mohammed Nazim Zaman3, Mohammed Aminur Rahman3, Mohammad Abul Kashem1
  • Abstract : The study is mainly focused on assessment of agricultural soil contamination and its degradation scenario by trace elements which are mainly attained from industrial activity and agrochemicals at Gazipur district. Twenty soil samples were collected randomly from different locations of Gazipur along the river side of agricultural fields. Most of the trace elements concentration is higher than world average. There are two main clusters among trace elements. There are significant positive correlations among the elements according to Pearson Correlation Matrix and minimal to moderate enrichment factor indicates anthropogenic sources. The highest geo-accumulation index are contributing extremely pollution scenario of the study area. Contamination factor indicates that the study areas are both moderately to less contaminated by the heavy metals. Pollution load index analyses indicate that the places are polluted by trace elements and their sources are mostly industrial processes and agrochemicals. Principle component 1 denotes mainly natural source of elements. But principle components 2 stands for mainly anthropogenic sources. So, it is evident that the soil in the study area has been degrading severely through trace elements contamination mostly from anthropogenic sources and it has great possibility that plants would uptake heavy metals from the soil.

  • Extraction and Dyeing Behavior of Pomegranate dye on Tencel Fabric
    Authors: Faisal Rehman1, Tayyab Naveed2, Wajeeh Ullah3, Reza Assefi Pour1, Wang Wei1,4*
  • Abstract : Application of natural dyes for textile is increasing due to the awareness of ecology, environment and pollution control. The objective of this study is to dye Tencel fabric with pomegranate peel natural dye for comparative analysis of colour efficiencies (K/S), CIE L*a*b* values and the colour fastness properties. The mordants used were ferrous (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate. For the extraction of dye, aqueous extraction method was used. Pre-mordanting method was used and dyeing effect on tencel fabric was analyzed at temperatures 80°C and 90°C. It was found that mordant type has an influence on color efficiency and the color coordinates of fabric dyed with pomegranate peel dye. The colour efficiency (K/S: 4) and color fastness to washing, light, rubbing and perspiration were better and outstanding (grade 4-5) at 90°C temperature in all dyed samples. In overall results, pre-mordanting method at 90°C temperature gives best results of color efficiency and color fastness properties.

  • An Assessment on the Level of Compliance in Handling and Disposal of Spent Oils from Retail Fuel Service Stations in Gwarinpa District of Abuja, Nigeria
    Authors: Obiukwu S. C1. and Kadafa A. A2
  • Abstract : Protecting the environment from the activities of retail fuel service stations requires proper monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulatory standards by regulatory bodies and adequate compliance by operators. The research sought to determine the level of compliance to environmental regulations among retail fuel service stations within Gwarinpa District of Abuja, Nigeria in the handling and disposal of spent oils. Questionnaires, field observations of the facilities and interviews were used to collect relevant information from the respondents and regulatory agencies. The research conducted a census of all seven retail fuel service stations within the GWARINPA District. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in analysing data such as content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results showed that majority of the retail fuel stations activities in the handling and disposal of spent oil were non-compliant to existing regulations stipulated by the Department of Petroleum Resources(DPR) and National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA). In the light of the above, the research recommended the need for operators to create awareness and train staff on environmental best practices and also ensure implementation of these practices. There is also need for regulatory bodies to improve on enforcement strategies.

  • Diatom Diversity of Three Freshwater Lakes in Kolhapur City, Maharashtra
    Authors: Jadhav A. S., Patil P. V. and Raut P. D.
  • Abstract : Diatoms are particularly interesting as a potential indicator of water quality. Diatoms are used as bio-indicators of pollution. The study focused on present status of diatom diversity and to determine pollution level of three lakes in Kolhapur city. The study was conducted from September 2012 to February 2013. About 18 species of diatoms were identified from three lakes. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Evenness index (J’), Species Richness (SR), Index of dominance were calculated for diatom. All the three lakes showed species richness in between 1.73 - 2.27. The highest Species Richness was found in Rankala lake where as less for Rajaram lake. Also, Species Richness for all the three lakes was in between 2 to 2.5. Species Eveness Index was observed to be slightly high for Kalamba lake while it was least for Rajaram lake. The study revealed that the diversity of diatoms varies seasonally which is higher in winter season and lower during the month of September and October (post monsoon season) indicating more pollution in the lakes. The major species Aulacoseira ambigau, Navicula cryptocrphala, Synedra ulna and Cymbella turgidula.

  • Physico-chemical and Microbial Analysis of Godavari Water during Pushkaram
    Authors: 1Yamuna Devi Siraparapu, 2Bhaskara Venkata Prasad B, 3Aruna Kumari S, 4Padma U
  • Abstract : The physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of river Godavari has been studied during Godavari Pushkaram 2015. Godavari is the second longest river in India. Pushkaram is the festival of Godavari which occurs once in 12 years. At this time of Godavari Pushkaram lakhs of people took bath in Godavari water. The present analysis on Godavari water was carried out for one year i.e., from January 2015 to December 2015 means before Pushkaram, during Pushkaram and after Pushkaram. For water quality analysis seven sampling stations were selected which are located at upstream, middle stream and downstream of east and west Godavari. The water samples were collected and analyzed as per the standard methods of APHA (1999). In this study Temperature, PH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Fluoride, Chloride, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), sulphate, E-Coli parameters were analyzed. The obtained results are compared with water quality standards given by World Health Organization, Environmental Protection Agency and Bureau of Indian Standards. During Pushkaram there are some deviations in physico chemical parameters, but there is drastic change in E-Coli. On the basis of various parameters studied during Pushkaram, Godavari water is polluted due to anthropogenic activities.

  • Prospects of Adopting Eco-Friendly Measures of Soil Sustainability among Vegetable Producers in Dhading, Nepal
    Authors: B. Ghimire1, S.C. Dhakal2 and S. Sharma3
  • Abstract : Using simple random sampling technique, primary data were collected from 120 vegetable producers in Dhading district of Nepal with aid of pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. Household income analysis resulted increased in income from vegetable farming significantly by 35.21% with increased area of 2.24 Ropani after adopting measures of soil sustainability. Among four different soil sustainability measures used for the study, use of improved FYM (99.17%) was highly adopted followed by improved cattle shed and urine use, legume integration and use of botanical pesticides. Scaling technique ranked problems of high cost of constructing house for dung storage, lack of improved cattle shed lack of detailed knowledge and unavailability of raw materials as the most severe on the adoption of improved FYM, use of cattle urine, legume integration and use of botanical pesticides respectively. About 75% of farmers were found satisfied with the measures and 69.2% were willing to continue and promote in the future. Observation in neighbors (96.7%) was the most motivating factor of adoption. Adoption had changed cropping pattern and varieties and showed positive impact on livestock sector, women empowerment, soil properties, crop diversification, utilization of local resources and climatic hazards in the study area.