Issue : Volume 6, Issue 2

In this issue:


  • Factors Affecting on the Weather and Oceanography Parameters in Different Structural Areas of Red Sea, Egypt
    Authors:Mahmoud I. El Saman and Mostafa A. M. Mahmoud
  • Abstract : The coastal semi closed areas located along Red Sea are critical regions, The areas under study spread in the western Red Sea on the Egyptian coastal included four areas located between 26° 37' 00'' and 23° 09' 05'' N, these consecutively from northerly to southerly; Safaga Bay, Hamrawien, Sharm El Bahri and Shallatien. It is found that differ structural and human intervention may contribute to climatic and environmental changes of the hydrological semiclosed coastal areas. The incident solar radiation suffers from decay due to a combination of weather factors, but in some areas is increased about default values as a result of reflection from the surrounded mountains. Also the metrological parameters values are differed about its default value as air temperature in Safaga, relative humidity in Sharm El Bahri. The penetration solar radiation is suffering in the Hamrawien from the phosphate dust whereas the surface water temperature is the highest in Sharm El Bahr and the surface water salinity is the highest in Safaga. The water density in Shallatien is affected by the desalination plant outlet.

  • The Feasibility of REDD+ Implementation in Ghana: A Case of Three Farming Communities
    Authors:Martha Ofori-Kuragu1, Alex Moyem Kombat2 and Henry Mensah
  • Abstract : Forest plays an important role in regulating the earth’s climate. However, this resource is under a great threat in Ghana. Reducing emission from deforestation and degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) is one of the latest initiatives the country is embarking on to reverse this menace. The paper examines the feasibility of its implementation in Ghana by assessing the opportunity cost of farmers if they decide to engage in REDD+ projects. Thus, the aim of the paper is, to evaluate the cost and benefits of REDD+ implementation in Ghana and how the reducing emission goal could be attained. To do this, the profitability of the current land use practices and its associated opportunity cost of three communities in the central region of Ghana were estimated. Also, profits were calculated using enterprise budget method and the opportunity costs of the land use per hectare by the discounted cash flow analysis method. The results show that the current land use practice provides a more attractive option than any potential REDD+ project. This notwithstanding, the paper shows REDD+ can be a complementary policy in tackling forest degradation in Ghana.

  • Desertification Change Analysis Study Using Multi-Temporal Awifs Data: Uttarakhand State
    Authors:S. D. Dhargawe 1, K. L. N. Sastry,2 N. S Gahlod3 and V.S.Arya4*
  • Abstract : The ecosystem in arid, semi-arid, dry sub-humid region appears to be undergoing degradation processes generally described as desertification. The Himalayan region in India is most susceptible to the processes of desertification due to its very fragile and sensitive ecosystem. Change detection study on desertification was conducted on 1:0.5 million scale using IRS-IC and Resourcesat-2 multi-temporal data for the years 2003-2005 to 2011-2013. It was found that there was an increase of 1.25 percent in the desertification area in the state during the study period. A significant increase was observed in vegetation degradation i.e. from 10.20 percent to 11.30 percent. The degradation under settlement also increased from 0.19 percent to 0.30 percent during 2003 to 2013, respectively. The results show that highest vegetal degradation was observed in scrub lands i.e. 1.01 percent followed by 0.14 percent in the forest class. It was also observed that area affected by water erosion and frost shattering show no change during the study period.

  • Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Rotifers of Shahanoor Dam, Amravati District, India
    Authors:Y. A. Gadhikar1, S. P. Sawale2
  • Abstract : The present study was designed to study the seasonal variation and diversity of rotifers from the Shahanoor dam reservoir, district Amravati, Maharashtra. In the study period from January 2011 to December 2013, total 25 species of rotifers belonging to 14 genera were identified. Keratella tecta was the most dominant rotifer, followed by Keratella serullata and Monostyla copies. Percentage and population of each species of rotifer was studied. Further seasonal variation among the rotifers was also noted. Highest number of rotifers were recorded in summer season while lowest rotifer count was in winter season. Rotifer species like Keratella tecta, Keratella serrulata, Monostyla copies, Monostyla pyriformes, Monostyla clastocerca, Lecanae mira, Lecanae flexilis were abundant while Collurella uncinata, Harringia rosa, Trichocera and Vonoyella globosa were rarely found throughout the study period. The main objective of the present study was to assess the composition of rotifers and determine their response to seasonal variations. As the water from this reservoir is supplied to different villages nearby, such study will help to know the water quality and general environmental status of water body.

  • Evaluation on Economic Loss for Rejection of Finished Leather in Bangladesh
    Authors:*1Md. Arafat Hossain; 2Mukta Rani Sarkar; 3Md. Farhad Ali; 4Uttam Kumar Roy
  • Abstract : Leather is the cornerstone of one of the oldest industries in Bangladesh, which plays a pivotal function in the national economy with a praiseworthy reputation worldwide. After the French product Bangladeshi leather is the best in the world. Leather industry has a vast contribution on our economy and after all on total GDP. In Bangladesh the leather industry is well established and is ranked 4th in terms of earning foreign exchange, as it accounts for about 6% of total exports earnings. The study aims to assess the economic loss caused by the rejection of finished leather. The 12 tanneries of Hazaribagh, Dhaka have been used as a site selection in this research. There are four grades – Primes grade (A-D), Secondary grade (A-F), Rejections (E-F) and Double rejections (HH). The factors of grading mainly depend on the surface quality and defects of the finished leather. Usually buyers demand either Primes grade (A-D) or Secondary grade (A-F), which are considered as the best quality leather. The price of the leather varies quite considerably with its quality. This paper basically indicates the economic loss which occurs due to the low cost of secondary grade, rejections and double rejections. Again, this study found that low cost causes for the absence of their proper quality. To assess the economic loss for rejection of finished leather in Bangladesh is the main objective of this article.