Volume 5, Issue 6

In this issue:


  • Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) obtained from Choba and Aluu Axis of New-Calabar River, Rivers State Nigeria
    Authors: C. O Nwoko and I. Egonwa
  • Abstract : This study investigated trace metal contamination in the muscle of two fish species: Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) obtained from the Choba axis (Downstream) and Aluu axis (Upstream) of New Calabar River in Rivers State. The fish species were dried, ashed and analysed for trace metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Model Unican Solar 969. The results obtained showed that Pb values ranged from 0.097 to 0.655 mg/kg with the highest obtained in Oreochromis niloticus at the Choba axis. There was no significant difference in the Pb values between the two fish species. Copper ranged 17.7-58.2 mg/kg, highest value obtained in Clarias gariepinus at the Aluu axis. Zinc values ranged from 28.5 to 52.1mg/kg. At Aluu, Cd was not detected in the two fish species, values obtained at Choba were 0.17mg/kg for Clarias gariepinus and 1.39mg/kg for Oreochromis niloticus. Zinc and Cu levels in the two fish species at the upstream end exceeded the FAO permissible limits. Also Pb and Cd values in Oreochromis niloticus, at the Choba end exceeded FAO permissible limit. The mean trace metal concentration of the water samples ranged from Zn: 1.145±0.01mg/l-2.58± 0.1mg/l, Cu:0.55±0.02mg/l-1.2±0.04mg/L, Pb: 0.018± 0.01mg/l and Cd: 0.034mg/l. Pb and Cd were not detected at Choba axis. The risk assessment for daily intake of consumers of fish from the river indicated that the non-carcinogenic risk tends to become significant with exposure duration of 30 years mainly for Cd, Zn and Cu exposure since the indices exceeded the acceptable limits of non-cancer hazard quotient.

  • Water Level Fluctuation in the Narangi Watershed of Vaijapur Tahsil, District Aurangabad, INDIA
    Authors: Aher K. R. and Kathane P. V.
  • Abstract : Declining water level trends and yields of wells and drying up of shallow wells are common in many parts of India. The present study has attempted to understand the behavior of water level fluctuation by selecting a small watershed viz. Narangi watershed in the Vaijapur tahsil of Aurangabad District, Maharashtra. The average pre- monsoon groundwater level in the Narangi watershed is 9.30 mbgl to 18.80 mbgl and the average post- monsoon groundwater level ranging from 4.90 mbgl to 18.20 mbgl. The average rainfall in the area is 517.45 mm with high spatial variation. Rainfall from the basin directly converts to overland flow due to lack of tree cover, water harvesting structures and flows out of the basin. For the effective water conservation plans in the Narangi watershed area, the water conservation treatment structures like gully plugs, continuous contour trenches (CCT), earthen check dams, percolation tanks are recommended. The implementations of such structures will definitely help to combat over the scarcity situation in the area.

  • Implementation Challenges of Ghana's Forest Policy: A Case of Wassa Amenfi West and East Districts
    Authors: Henry Mensah, Martha Ofori-Kuragu and Alex Moyen Kombat
  • Abstract : There is an increasing global concern in relation to problems attributed to continuous tree felling that ultimately culminates in the degradation of forests. Forest institutions in two districts namely, Wassa Amenfi West and East Districts where deforestation is widespread were selected for this study. Interviews with key stakeholders together with a desk study which focused on the review of policy documents served as the basis for examining the challenges facing the proper implementation of forest and wildlife policy in the districts, the relationship between the Forest Division Service (FSD) and stakeholders as well as hindrances responsible for the non-attainment of targets for forest institutions in Ghana. Corruption which has been studied extensively in relation to forest management as one of the key challenges of forest policy implementation had no impact on the present study but rather commitment in enforcing laws, regulations and legislation in forest institutions in Ghana. Corruption is however one key variable which could have dire consequences on forest management in Ghana if not nipped in the bud by managers of Ghana's forest.

  • Estimation of Barium Toxicity Mitigating Efficacy of Amaranthus caudatus L.
    Authors: Marisamy Kalingan, Duraipandian Muthaiah, Sevugaperumal Rajagopal, Ramasubramanian Venkatachalam
  • Abstract : Barium commonly used in the fireworks – cottage industry of this area is the predominant pollutant on growth, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics of Amaranthus caudatus L. a widely cultivated crop. This study is aimed at assessing the efficacy of Amaranthus caudatus L.in the absorption of barium. The seedlings of Amanranthus caudatusL. were treated with various concentration of barium (2mM, 4mM, 6mM, 8mM, 10mM) and its effect on the morphometric, biochemical and enzymatic characters were studied. After ten days of treatment the growth parameters such as leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, shoot and root length were found decreased than in the control. Biochemical characteristics such as the content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, soluble sugar and protein also decreased with the increase in the concentration of barium. In contrary, the free amino acid, proline, and leaf nitrate increased and the activities of enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase were also found to be increased with the increase in the concentration of barium while the activity of nitrate reductase was found decreased. The result suggest that comparison of the parameters analyzed between the treated and control reveals that barium has seriously affected the Amaranthus caudatus L. but at the same time the plant adopts mechanisms such as accumulation of anthocyanin and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes to overcome the ill effects of the metal ions. Thus this study is unique in the sense that, this plant Amaranthus caudatus L. having been found to be huperaccumulative of metals can be Co-cultivate along with plants susceptible to metal toxicity to overcome the problem of metal toxicity to plants.


  • Estimation of Chlorophyll Content in Young and Adult Leaves of Some Selected Plants
    Authors: Pramod N. Kamble, Sanjay P. Giri, Ranjeet S. Mane and Anupreet Tiwana
  • Abstract : In the present study chlorophyll a (Chl. a) and b (Chl. b) content of ten different plants have been recorded. The qualitative difference of chlorophyll a (Chl.a) and b (Chl.b) content between young and adult leaves were observed. A total of ten plant species were selected namely Mango (Magnifera indica), Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Gavua (Psidium guajava), Almond (Prunus dulcis), Bryophyllum (Bryophyllum pinnatum), Sapodilla (Manikara zapota), Neem (Azadiracta indica), Ashoka (Polyalthia longifolia), Ficus (Ficus benjamina) and Datura (Datura metal) and were used for analysis of chlorophyll content. In all the cases the adult leaves showed higher chlorophyll content in comparison to young leaves. This has been proved that the age of leaves was an important factor for chlorophyll content.