Volume 5, Issue 1

In this issue:


  • Applications of Ligninolytic Enzymes from a White-Rot Fungus Trametes versicolor
    Authors: G. N. Rameshaiah and M. L. Jagadish Reddy
  • Abstract : The growing concern over the pollution issues by the rapid industrialization has posed a serious problem forcing researchers around the world to seek alternative eco-friendly technologies. Textile, pulp and paper industries discharge a huge quantity of waste in the environment, and the disposal of this waste is an immense problem. To solve this problem, work has done to discover such a biological process, which can detoxify these wastes and is not damaging the environment. Lignocellulosic agro-wastes comprising over 60% of the existing plant biomass are the potential renewable resources for bio fuels, bio fertilizers, animal feed, bioremediation and chemical feed stock. Trametes versicolor is one of the extra cellular, non-specific and efficient ligninolytic enzymes producers with high activities as secondary metabolites under optimum growth conditions, especially lignin peroxidases (LiPs), manganese peroxidases (MnPs) and laccases. Laccases use oxygen and produce water as by product. They can degrade a range of compounds including phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. They also have capability to detoxify a range of environmental pollutants. The present review therefore aims to bring out a comprehensive analysis of available biological agent which can replace the present highly polluting chemical processes for effluent treatment from pulp and paper industries, textile industries, food industries, bio remediation and bioethanol production.

  • Forest Resource Accounting: An Overview and Indian Perspective
    Authors: Shruti Garg, Vandana Sharma
  • Abstract : Forest Resource accounting is a debated issue. With the fast-growing economy in India, the growing pressure and increasing awareness for environmental protection requires deep understanding of the interactions between forest and other sectors concerning economic development, forest resources consumption and forest environmental degradation. Classical Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures under the System of National Accounts (SNA) do not take into account material externalities, instead they emphasize on GDP as a measure of economic growth. Accounting for forest wealth has a number of policy useful benefits that is why it is necessary to maintain such accounts which incorporate all those benefits. True contribution of forestry sector benefits to the national economy are at present grossly underestimated with the result that the actual benefits are several times higher than those reported and incorporated in the national income accounts. Recognizing the need for a realistic valuation of forest benefits and costs, an appropriate accounting framework for integrating Forest Resource Accounts (FRA) into the National Income Accounts (NIA), is needed. It will provide better understanding of the full range of goods and services supplied by the forests which is essential for the optimal utilization of forests, and may provide an economic rationale for sustainable forestry. Forest stakeholders the world over are considering the transition to sustainable forest management (SFM). This paper attempts to discuss the initiatives undertaken worldwide and by India in context of FRA including its evolution, development, data gaps and issues concerned and recommends the way forward.


  • Monitoring the Process of Destruction of Informal Settlement Neighborhoods Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images
    Authors: Mohsen Ahadnejad Ravshty, Somayeh Alipour, Abrahim Sharifzadeh Aghdam
  • Abstract : The aim of the present study was to monitor the process of destruction and clearance policy of the informal settlement in Islamabad neighborhood, Karaj in the years following the initiation destruction and clearance of the over-1400 meter altitude project and to evaluate its success rate based on the experts' views. The study was an applied research and in regard with its nature was descriptive-analytical. Multi-temporal high resolution satellite images that had been retrieved over 2002-2014 were utilized to evaluate and monitor the destruction process in the neighborhood. The results of the study indicated that destruction and clearance began in 1995 and have lasted till 2014. Moreover, the results proved the failure of the project from the initial administrative stages and over the last two decades according to the experts and the informal settlement authorities' views. Finally, utilizing ANP model indicated that the most important factor in destructing the neighborhood was the policy of destruction and the second factor was the bad scenery that the neighborhood had given the city entrance.

  • Toxicity Study of Textile Effluent of Udhna, Surat Region (Gujarat) on Wistar Albino Rat
    Authors: Kanthariya Bhavesh V. and Tank S. K.
  • Abstract : The Sub-acute oral toxicity study was designed and conducted to determine the toxicity profile of Textile Effluent Sample (SR1) when administered by oral route daily for 28 days to wistar albino rat. Effluent sample (SR1) was collected from Textile industry of Udhna, Surat. Textile Effluent Water Sample (SR1) dissolved in distilled water was administered to Rat by oral route at the dose levels of 0 mg/kg to 20 ml/kg i.e. 0 mg/kg, 2.5 ml/kg, 10 ml/kg and 20 ml/kg body weight. Histopathology, Hematological and serum Biochemical study were carried out on wistar albino rat. In this study, body weight and food consumption decreased in the 10.0 and 20.0 ml/kg dose groups, and hepato cellular hypertrophy and minimal bile duct proliferation were found at a higher incidence in animals in the 20.0 ml/kg dose group, while inflammation of the prostate were recorded at a higher incidence in the 10.0 and 20.0 ml/kg dose groups. In Textile Effluent Sample (SR1) treated groups, serum triglyceride level decrease significantly. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of Textile effluent (SR1) was considered to be 2.5 ml/kg body weight/day.

  • Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of Tourism in Kodagu District (India): A Case Study
    Authors: Shivaraju H. P and Anil Kumar K.M
  • Abstract : Kodagu district has internationally recognized as one of the environmental "micro hot spot" due to the biological diversity and distribution of the Western Ghats. Unique culture heritages of the area have made ideally suits for tourism and a most attractive recreational spot in the country. The present study deals with an impact of extreme tourism on the environment and socio-economic conditions of the district. An impact assessment study was carried out by sample survey method at major tourist places of the district. The study shows that tourism has made substantial contributions to the livelihoods of local communities especially on socio-economic conditions. The study is explored serial consequences of tourism on the local environment and socio-economic conditions of local communities by pollution, waste disposal, threatening to wildlife, over utilization of endemic species and income outflow, etc. The study contributes to the knowledge and information on the current status of tourism vulnerability and diverse opinions on the conservation in among the local communities.

  • Relationship between Developing Ovary and Thymus in Swiss Mice
    Authors: Ragini Sharma, Khushbu Panwar, Nazera Qureshi and S. M. Kantwa
  • Abstract : In the present investigation the relationship between developing ovary and thymus in Swiss mice was studied. To find out the relationship between ovary and thymus pregnant mice after confirming virginal plug were used. After parturition the ovary and thymus of their pups were removed on 1st, 21st, 35th and 49th day, fixed, embed and sections were prepared for the histological study. Thymus and ovary develops parallel until puberty (30th day) means cellular density of both organs is same. After puberty apparent cellular loss in the thymus of female mice is observed. While in case of males the inception of puberty takes place after 35th day of postnatal life. From the present investigation we conclude that ovary and thymus develops gradually up to puberty after that there is a retrogressive change in cellular numeral. The levels of gonadotropins are responsible for these changes; therefor onset of puberty in females occurs earlier in comparison to males. In the same species as the sexual maturity occurs on different postnatal days so the process of thymic involution is also takes place accordingly.

  • Effect of Temperature on Toxicity of Dimethoate 30% EC to Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.)
    Authors: R. Shanmugasundaram, T. Jeyalakshmi, Sweatha S Mohan, S. Hilda, M. Saravanan, S. Geetha, J. Kannadasan and A. Goparaju
  • Abstract : In order to assess the influence of temperature on the acute toxicity of Dimethoate 30% EC on mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758), a laboratory study was conducted under three temperature conditions viz., 20±1°C, 25±1°C, 30±1°C with a constant range of relative humidity from 60 to 80%. Identical concentrations of Dimethoate 30% EC viz, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm were prepared in deionised water and evaluated on the early 3rd instar larvae of silkworm by following leaf dip method. The larvae were exposed to treated mulberry leaves for 24 hours and incubated separately under different temperature conditions. Observation on larval mortality was made on 24 and 48 hours after treatment. The results of the experiment showed that there was a temperature response toxic effect noticed on the silkworm larvae. The 48 hour LC50 values of Dimethoate 30% EC were 1322, 1242, 997 ppm for 20±1°C, 25±1°C, 30±1°C respectively. Similarly the LC95 values were 4319, 3521, 2217 ppm respectively. The 48 hour LC50 and LC95 values of Dimethoate 30% EC were significantly minimum at higher temperature range tested (30±1°C). It is concluded that the temperature has a pronounced effect on toxicity of Dimethoate 30% EC on silkworm.

  • Vulnerability Assessment of Rural Communities to Environmental Changes in Mid-Hills of Himachal Pradesh in India
    Authors: Ndungu Charles Kimani, Bhardwaj S. K., Sharma D. P., Sharma R., Gupta R. K., Sharma B.
  • Abstract : Field survey was conducted during 2014 to study the vulnerability of rural communities to environmental changes in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh in India. Integrated vulnerability analysis approach was employed based on indices constructed from carefully selected indicators for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The household was selected as the main unit of analysis because major decisions about adaptation to environment-induced stresses and livelihood processes are taken at that level. The indicators were weighted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Those which got the highest weights included historical changes in climate (1.00), share of non-natural resources based income (0.98) and physical assets (0.74) among the indicators of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, respectively. Inter-block analysis of the vulnerability index indicated that households located away from district headquarters have higher levels of biophysical and socio-economic vulnerabilities compared to those near the district headquarters, due to higher reliance on natural resources which are now being impacted by on-going environmental changes. Policy measures and development efforts should therefore aim towards addressing the high biophysical and socio-economic vulnerabilities of the rural communities of the mountain of Himachal Pradesh and more emphasis should be laid on the enhancement of their adaptive capacity.