Abstract : The mechanisms of oxidation of azo dyes by the Fenton-like process and the enzyme Horseradish peroxidase are similar. Both processes occur between pH 2.0-4.0. Horseradish peroxidase is a heme containing enzyme. Ferric-Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Ferric-EDTA) which resembles the chelated Ferric ion of the heme group was selected as an additive for the decolourisation of three azo dyes- Methyl Orange, Bismarck Brown and Tartrazine by Horse peroxidase. The decolourisation was computed using the difference between initial and final absorbance of the dye solutions over 24 hours. It was found in the present study, that the addition of Ferric-EDTA improved the decolourisation of Methyl Orange and Bismarck Brown at pH 6.0 and Tartrazine at pH 9.0; by 10.33%, 13.41% and 1.58%, respectively. The enhanced decolourisation may be because Ferric-EDTA mimics the oxidative decolourisation action of peroxidase on the tested azo dyes. The activity of crude peroxidase was enhanced using 0.23 mmol L-1 and 0.56 mmol L-1 at pH 6.0 and 9.0 respectively. Methyl Orange and Bismarck Brown are decolourised at relatively mildly acidic condition, pH 6.0 as against pH 2.0-4.0 in presence of the additive. The findings of the present study are significant in the enzymatic decolourisation of wastewater containing azo dyes. Enzymatic wastewater treatment requires large amounts of enzymes. An additive that can mimic the action of the enzyme and enhance its performance can reduce the total amount of enzyme used in the treatment. This may even help to reduce the running cost of enzymatic wastewater treatment.
Abstract : The environment plays a vital role in the transmission of diseases and also in the spread of resistant strains of microbes to humans. These routes of transmission are of great importance in the health status of many populations in developing countries like India. Paper currency notes that are passed from hand to hand are likely to be contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms especially if handled in an unhygienic way. The present study was made to investigate the bacterial contamination of currency notes collected from people of different walks of the society and the efficacy of three essential oils for controlling the bacterial contamination of currency notes in India. The study reported here found that the extent of contamination was found related to the denominations of the currency. The prevalence occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms isolated from Indian paper currency notes from different occupational groups showed that all the currency denominations groups had microbial contamination and Rs.500 had less contamination than other denominations .It was derived from the result that cinnamon oil was proved to be the best essential oil in warding off harmful microbes much more effectively than the other essential oils.
Abstract : Chennai, a typically large city in south India, faces water and climate change related threats to the already growing water scarcity. The aims of this paper were: to describe water security, policy changes and to analyse the policies and adaptation strategies. The paper uses mixed- method and accidental sampling for data collection. The data show that, even with 700mm and 1100mm of annual rainfall, Chennai still has water insecurity. The survey results implied that an increase in water use efficiency is much needed. Although, Chennai has 100% pipe connections, water supply is intermittent. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of respondents reported concerns about sporadic supply, low quality and poor service. Respondents notified that purchase water for drinking and cooking adds to their household expense, and is on average 2% of their salary. The water price is 6 to 10 paisa per litre (for usage over 10KL), at an incremental rate. Thus raising major concerns regarding the fair pricing of water, as 82l/d is the per capita use.
Abstract : Groundwater resource in Ohaji Egbema, was investigated for its quality from which inferences are drawn on its usability, prevalent hydrochemical processes in the water system and probable quality degradation. Results of the field and laboratory analysis indicate a chemical attribute of low pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC). Cationic concentrations including Na2+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ have values ranging from 5.2 - 20.3, 2 - 8, 0.96 - 9.28, and 0 - 2.3mg/l respectively whilst Anions involve NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, with their respective values as 8.5-20.1, 8.5-24.14, 1.48-45.07 and 8.6-16.5mg/l. Selected heavy metals tested follow the order of Mn2+ > Fe > Zn2+ > Cu2+. The water quality plots reveal a hydrogeochemical process operative within the groundwater system as relating to water-soil interaction and incorporation of leached formation water along the groundwater flow path. Illatively, other parameters suggests a low mineralized soft freshwater having a limited residence time, with an onset of degradation from biochemical related substances resulting from human activities in the area. An interplay of these processes produced a chloride water type (Na(k)Cl and Cl- + SO4-). A comparison of these results with various quality guidelines, suggests that the groundwater maybe usable in its untreated state for crop irrigation but will require pH remediation to upgrade its quality for portability and use in some industries.
Abstract : Some of the most serious environmental damage is taking place in the third world, especially destruction of forests and the loss of species. The resulting famines, floods, erosion and droughts are taking a rapidly increasing number of lives each year. As the trees are lost rain runs of more rapidly, eroding soils and causing more serious flooding, and more serious droughts later on. When there is less wood people burn more dung, which should be going back to the soil. There are now millions of "environmental refugees: people fleeing because their environments have become unable to support them. The changes in the environmental quality parameters due to mining activities may have substantial impact on the regional ecosystem. The biodiversity of the nearby areas need to be kept into consideration on a long term basis for better monitoring of environmental impacts and cost effective characterization of the changes in the land utilization and land cover changes maps, over time. Presently, it has become mandatory to study and analyse the impacts of mining on its surroundings with the use of remote sensing technology to generate valuable land cover maps of valuable assets for complete environmental assessment over mining affected area. In this paper the same has been demonstrated for the small mining operations in the district of Barddhaman with respect to the forest and greenery changes in and around the mining areas.