Volume 4, Issue 2

In this issue:


  • Effect of Knowledge and Motivation Toward Seaweed Farmers' Cultivation Behavior
    Authors: Moses Kopong Tokan; Gufran Darma Dirawan; Bakhrani Rauf; Yahyah

    Abstract : This study was carried out to solve the problem of the ice-ice disease faced by seaweed farmers. The purpose of this research was to describe the effect of ice-ice disease knowledge and seaweed farming knowledge to cutivation behavior; the effect of ice-ice disease knowledge, and the seaweed cultivation knowledge to the cultivation motivation; and the effect of cultivating motivation to the cutivation behavior of the seaweed farmers. This research is a correlational study to look at the relationships between exogenous with endogenous variables. The study involved 60 seaweed farmers in Tablolong village. The data of this study consists of cultivation behavior and motivation collected by questionnaire, the data about knowledge of ice-ice disease, and seaweed cultivation gathered through the knowledge test sheet. Data were analyzed by path analysis through SPSS for Window.The results showed that there is a direct effect of the ice-ice disease knowledge toward the cultivation motivation but not for cultivation knowledge; and there is a direct effect of the cultivation motivation to the cultivation behavior. It can be concluded that the ice-ice knowledge directly effect toward cultivation motivation and the cultivation motivation effect toward behavior of the seaweed farmers in Kupang district.

  • Influence of Changing Cultural Practices on Nesting behaviour of Apis florea Fabricius
    Authors: Rajeev Kumar and Neelima R. Kumar

    Abstract : The dwarf honey bee Apis florea F. is generally found in areas with hot climate. In order to study the nesting behaviour of this species, investigations were carried out at altitude ranging from 365 to 1100 meter (m) above mean sea level. Survey was conducted during four seasons for complete three years surveying 4-6 villages in each region. It was observed that change in cultural practices by human society has led to overall decline in dwarf honey bee colonies in hilly areas. Plain areas were observed to be choice habitat for these bees. Important attracting factors for nesting were rich forage sources, bovine dung, uninterrupted agricultural practices, traditional animal husbandry, safe nesting site and less predator infestation in plains. Animal husbandry farms proved to be safe zone for colony habitation.

  • Enzymatic Pre-Treatment as a Means of Enhancing the Colorfastness Properties of Handloom Cotton Fabrics
    Authors: Sunita Dixit and Shahnaz Jahan

    Abstract : Cotton is produced in over 50 countries worldwide, averaging 20-24 million tons per year. India is one of the largest consumers of cotton, accounting for about 60% of the total consumption of cotton. Demands in handloom fabrics are increasing throughout the world due to their comfort in wearing particularly in the tropical countries. Hence, to make this sector internationally and globally competitive, it requires maintaining standard quality parameters. Fortunately, in the present time, commercially viable alternative methods for preparing and finishing cotton fibre substrates based on the use of enzymes have emerged. Such methods will ensure the supremacy of cotton over other fibers for decades to come. The present research was planned by keeping in view the emerging trend of bio-processing, use of swelling agents and dyeing with natural dyes. The present study was conducted to optimize the pretreatment process with enzymes and swelling agents on handloom cotton fabric. Experiments were conducted to determine optimum values of four variables for acid and neutral cellulase enzyme treatment, namely, pH, concentration, treatment time and temperature. Concentration, treatment time and temperature were the three variables optimized for the swelling agents. Dyeing variables i.e. concentration of dye material, extraction time, dyeing time, mordant concentration and method of mordanting with natural mordant were optimized.

  • Forest Fire Risk Zonation Using Geospatial Techniques and Analytic Hierarchy Process in Dehradun District, Uttarakhand, India
    Authors: Arun Kumar Thakur and Dharmendra Singh

    Abstract : Forest fires are one of the major natural risks in the forest of Uttarakhand. In such areas, fire occurs frequently and there is a need for global approaches that analyze wide scenarios of factors involved. It is impossible to control nature, but is possible to map forest fire risk zone (FFRZ) and thereby minimize the frequency of fire. The aims of the present study are 1) to set up and analyse the FFRZ over forested region of Dehradun 2) to see whether these forest fires are natural in nature or deliberately caused by people living adjacent to forest 3) to find firs prone areas and their prioritization. The model deals to combine geospatial data by Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to construct the FFRZ map. Influencing factors like vegetation moisture, slope, aspect, elevation, distance from roads, and vicinity of settlements have been taken into consideration. These variables were weighted based on their impact on the fire risk. Around 3.13% of total forested area was found to be in very high risk zone and 50.25% area was found to be in high-risk zone. The distribution of fire data over the FFRZ map shows that a very small part of them (1.26%) falls under very high risk zone and majority (98.74%) comes under high and moderate high risk zone areas. It indicates to a great extent that major part of forest fire is natural in nature and non-intentional. The people living nearby have the least role in causing these forest fires.

  • Ecocentrism in India: An Incredible Model of Peaceful Relation with Nature
    Authors: Chandan Kumar Gautam and Anand Prem Rajan

    Abstract : This article highlights the importance of traditional knowledge, culture and tradition practices in achieving sustainable development. Indian civilization is one of the most primitive and sustainable civilizations of the world. This review contains the description of eco-centric approach of different religions, community, ethnic groups and sects of India. It quotes the traditional practices to safeguard the environment. It has the description of sacred groves, environmental laws and some of the most significant environmental movements of India. The active participation of females in these environmental movements has also been mentioned. Every civilizations has its links with nature. We need to look back and incorporate the sustainable strategies our forefathers had adopted to establish peaceful coexistence with nature.

  • Soil Seeds Bank and Floristic Diversity as Affected by Spent Engine Oil
    Authors: Oyinade Aderoju Dedeke and Gbenga Festus Akomolafe

    Abstract : This study investigated the impact of spent engine oil (SEO) on the regeneration capacity of soil seed bank, growth and floristic diversity of a polluted soil. Top soil (0-10 cm) of 400 g with no previous contamination of SEO was collected from Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria and treated with 0.00%, 2.50%, 5.00% and 10.00% of SEO respectively in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Eight weeks after treatment, five plant species identified growing on 0.0% and 2.50% SEO were Desmodium canadense, Malvaviscus arboreus, Pennisetum purureum, Sida acuta and Cyperus strigosus. Pennisetum purureum was absent in soil polluted with 5.00% SEO. No plant species was found growing on the soil polluted with 10.00% SEO. Plant diversity decreased as levels of SEO increased, meaning that SEO adversely affect plant diversity and species richness. Also, there was a negative association between the species richness and species evenness. This study concluded that arbitrary dumping of SEO is a threat to diversity of soil seeds bank. Seed germination on SEO polluted soils depends on contaminants concentration and the tolerant level of the plants. Therefore, SEO ? 10.00% affect germination, growth and diversity of soil seeds bank thereby making the soil bare and waterlog.