Current Issue : Volume 4, Issue 1

In this issue:


  • Bacillariophyceae as Ecological Indicators of Water Quality in Two Lakes of Mysore
    Authors: Kavya S. and Savitha Ulavi

    Abstract : The insights for Biomonitoring and ecological assessments, focusing mainly on the diatom communities in two lakes of Mysore have been explored in this paper. The OMNIDIA GB 5.3 software has been used to derive the Louis Laclercq IDSE/5 index. The findings from the study show that the diversity of Bacillariophyceae was found to be considerably high in Karanji Lake when compared to Kukkarahalli Lake. Organic pollution was not detected in both the lakes while the level of anthropogenic pollution was 'low' to 'moderate' in both the lakes. On the other hand, level of degradation remained 'low' always in Karanji Lake while it was 'low' to 'moderate' in Kukkarahalli Lake. Synedra ulna was the most common species indicating the anthropogenic pollution. The ecological indicator values represent deteriorating water quality in both the lakes, the main reason being human interferences causing a direct impact on the lake ecosystems. Biomonitoring has been proven to be necessary supplementary to the traditional monitoring techniques and hence the importance of Bacillariophyceae as ecological indicators of water quality has been stressed.

  • Seasonal Monitoring using Harmonic Analysis of Water Quality in Lower Yamuna Basin
    Authors: Ritu Ahlawat

    Abstract : Regular monitoring of water quality helps in identification of nature and extent of pollution and its control. It also helps in prioritisation of pollution control activities, formulation of standards, assessment of adequacy and effectiveness of various pollution control programs. The existing network of water quality monitoring at selected stations in the lower Yamuna basin with periodic variations analysed using harmonic analysis is presented in this paper. Measurement of water quality at selected sites in a basin has to be done in an equally rational manner that puts more emphasis on anthropogenic inputs nowadays. The status of water quality is assessed both inside as well as outside the basin at outlet points of tributaries on main Yamuna river especially from the point of confluence of Chambal till its confluence with Ganga. In order to obtain overall status of water quality, composite index of water quality has been derived using MS-EXCEL based on data from Central Pollution Control Board. It was found that pH and temperature; biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD); and faecal and total coliforms (TC and FC) - are important component of water quality monitoring in the region.

  • Land Ethic: A Different Perspective for Green Community Rating Systems
    Authors: Jatina R. Thakkar

    Abstract : Sustainability in India is rated through various Green Rating Systems for real estate developments, although on voluntary basis. This paper presents a scientific analysis of an Indian Rating System namely: IGBC Green Townships and two global rating systems namely: BREEAM Communities and Pearl Rating System on basis of a philosophy known as Land Ethic (LE). Coined by an American forester Aldo Leopold, LE is based on parameters like soils, waters, plants/animals or collectively: the land. This philosophy forms a roadmap to view the rating systems in terms of its intangible/non-monetary benefits related to soils, waters, plants/animals and land. The analysis involved selection of keywords which best represented LE philosophy, namely: Community, Soils, Waters, Plants/Animals, Land Health, Land Pyramid, Land Organism, Ecological Conscience, Land Use, Conservation/Preservation and Education/Awareness. Each issue/checklist listed in the selected rating systems was qualitatively evaluated in respect to the selected LE keywords. For quantitative analysis, a scoring system was formulated to give scores to each issue/checklist vis-a-vis LE keywords. Scores A represented scores for issues/efforts and Scores B represented scores for respective credit points earned by each LE keyword. Scores A and B were then used for the purpose of this study on basis of LE keywords and issues/checklist of the rating systems. A resultant matrix was formulated for the purpose of compatibility inspection of the rating systems in context to LE philosophy. Few guidelines on basis of LE philosophy were also recommended.

  • Bioaccumulations of Heavy Metals on Soil and Arable Crops Grown in Abandoned Peacock Paint Industry in Ikot Ekan, Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
    Authors: Ekpo, F. E., Ukpong, E. J. and Udoumoh, I. D. J.

    Abstract : A study of heavy metals concentrations on soil and some economic crops grown within abandoned Peacock Paints Industry environment in Ikot Ekan, Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni,) were analysed using Unicam Solar 969 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A.A.S). Levels of these heavy metals in some economic crops and soil obtained from the abandoned Peacock Paint Industry environment were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control site, indicating that the activities of paint production and other manufacturing processes which took place when the industry was operational, contributed to the observed higher levels of heavy metals concentrations in the industrial environment. Comparison of heavy metals in crops and soils obtained from abandoned Peacock Paint Industry environment showed that heavy metals in crops were higher than those recorded in the soil obtained from abandoned Peacock Paint vicinity. The higher levels of heavy metals in crops could be attributed to the bioaccumulations and biomagnifications of these metals in crops tissues. The average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr in pumpkin leaves (Telfaiferia occientalis) were (256.13±3.34, 87.49±2.38, 5.29±2.28, 25.13±2.11, 23.13±1.22, 7.17±1.32, 17.01±0.08 and 24.02±0.12) respectively. In okro leaves (Abelmoschus esculentus), the concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr were (217.28±3.41, 43.18±2.76, 7.46±1.41, 12.89±2.87, 18.31±2.74, 10.13±2.40, 23.10±1.13 and 21.13±1.02) respectively; and in cassava leaves (Manihot esculentus) the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr were (205.30±2.58, 57.19±8.40, 13.13±2.52, 16.34±2.87, 24.13±2.08, 3.52±2.10, 20.02±2.09 and 25.12±1.07) respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples obtained within abandoned Peacock paint industry environment were significantly higher than those obtained from control sites. The levels of heavy metals in both soil and crops samples collected from abandoned Peacock Paint industry environment were significantly high to cause environmental concern as their concentrations exceeded the tolerable limits. However, there is need for suspension of all agricultural activities in the abandoned Peacock Paint industry to prevent the introduction of further heavy metals into the existing food chain. Also, there is need for government to regulate and control agricultural activities in all abandoned industries, and bioremediation of all the abandoned industries to avoid transmission of heavy metals to man through food chain.

  • Impacts of Climate Change, Vulnerability and Adaptation Opportunities on Gender Livelihoods Activities in Rural Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
    Authors: Ekpo, F. E. and Agu, N.N

    Abstract : A study was carried out in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The objective of this study was to ascertain the climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation measures on livelihoods activities on women in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State. Different Participatory Research Approaches (PRA) methods were used including in-depth interview, focus group discussion and household questionnaires were used. Findings revealed that women in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State constitute 97% of peasant farmers living in rural communities and solely depend on the rain-fed agriculture and natural resources for survival; hence they are more vulnerable to climate related hazards. Gender inequalities practiced in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State increased the levels of vulnerability; such as access to resources, credit facilities, extension services, education, information, technology, decision-making and socio-cultural practices in the area. Increase women's participation in decision?making at all levels, access to land and credit facilities, diversification of their livelihoods and changes in socio-cultural practices in Akwa Ibom State is necessary to support women to fully realize their potential for enhanced adaptive capacity to climate change impact in the area and elsewhere in Nigeria.


  • Natural Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics with Pigment Extracted from Roseomonas Fauriae
    Authors: R. Rajendran and B. Thamarai Selvi

    Abstract : Natural dyeing is a technique to dye the textile fabrics with the colours extracted from natural sources like plants, animals and minerals, microorganisms etc. They are eco-friendly, biodegradable and non-carcinogenic in comparison to synthetic dyes. In this research work, the pigment was extracted from Roseomonas fauriae using aqueous media. The dye potential of the extract was evaluated by dyeing on 100 % cotton fabrics under normal dyeing conditions. These findings reveal that the extract of pink pigment can be used for coloration of 100 % cotton. The relative colour strength of the dye was found to be more in case of cotton clothes mordant with alum. Air permeability of the treated cotton fabric was not much affected by the treatment. The slight decrease in tensile and tear strength was noticed in the treated samples. The aqueous pigment finished fabric has the best fastness criteria to washing. After treatment the stiffness of fabric was moderately increased.

  • A Comparative Study of Environmental Awareness among Secondary School Teachers in Bareilly District U.P. India
    Authors: Anita Singh, Sony Kumari and Jaspal Singh

    Abstract : The present study is an attempt to examine the environmental awareness of secondary school teachers in relation to sex, type of board and courses of studies. For this purpose, 1000 teachers (600 female and 400 male) were selected from different schools affiliated to CBSE and U. P. Board. In this process of selection only those teachers were selected whose teaching experiences were not less than 8 years. For measuring environmental awareness self-made questioner was used, Mean SD and 't' value were used to analyse the data. The study will highlight the influence in type of school, sex and courses of studies on the level of teachers of environmental understanding.