Current Issue : Volume 3, Issue 4

In this issue:


  • Assessing the Impact of Waste Gasoline on the Physicochemical Properties of Soils at Selected Automobile Workshops in Obiaruku, Southern Nigeria
    Authors: Ozulu G. U., Usiobaifo O. B. and Usman A. A.

    Abstract : The dumping of used gasoline indiscriminately on soils poses a potential threat to the health status of the environment. Physiochemical analyses of the soil to study the impact of waste gasoline from five selected auto mechanic workshops and a control point in Obiaruku, Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta state southern Nigeria, were carried out at depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm respectively. The results obtained showed that the pH values varied from depth to depth for each sampled site. Results of metal concentrations were significantly higher than that at the control site (non-auto-mechanic site), and had the following mean values: Pb- 10.70 mg/kg; Fe- 1326.35 mg/kg; Cu- 27.27 mg/kg; Zn- 70.47 mg/kg; Cd- 4.95 mg/kg. The metal levels at the control site shows Pb- 0.95 mg/kg; Fe- 999.88 mg/kg; Cu- 13.11 mg/kg; Zn- 23.11 mg/kg; Cd- 2.06 mg/kg. Profile of the heavy metals in the six sites was determined and the observed trend from most of the sites investigated showed that the top soil was more heavily loaded with heavy metals than the subsoil. However, the observed trend in the profile may also be influenced to varying factors such as age of site, type of soil formation and possibly the workload of automobile activities on the sites. This research aimed at assessing the impact of waste gasoline in increasing the concentration level of selected heavy metals on the soils within mechanic workshops in Obiaruku. The study shows that indiscriminate disposal of used gasoline oil on the soil for a long period may lead to increase in heavy metal concentration. Consequently, these metals may creep into our food chain through absorption by vegetation, become bioavailable and subsequently a threat to the ecosystem.

  • Treatability Study and Heavy Metal Removal from Electroplating Effluent Using Low Cost Adsorbent
    Authors: Kaushal R.K. and Upadhyay, K.

    Abstract : The effective removal of heavy metals from Electroplating Effluent is among the most important issues for many industrialized countries. Pulses Peels were used to produce adsorbent through environment friendly process Pulses Peels were crushed, washed and dried and used for Chromium and Iron removal. Chromium and Iron adsorption onto Pulses Peels was depended upon the controlling parameters such as mesh size and types of pulses peel. The objective of this study is to contribute in the search for less expensive adsorbents and their utilization. Batch studies showed that 32.11%, 47.062%, 13.97%, 28.23% of Cr ions and73.56%, 54.02%, 66.09%, 4.59% of Fe ions were removed from aqueous solution by pulses peels.

  • Energy Economic Value and Climate Change Adaptation Potentials of Gliricidia Sepium
    Authors: Oladipo, Isaac Olaposi, O. U. Dairo and Ajayi, Ebenezer Ayodele

    Abstract : This work reports the evaluation of calorific energy content, the agro-biological morphology of gliricida sepium in a derived forest in Ado Ekiti South-western Nigeria and its CO2 absorption capacity. The wood biomass density was found to be 620.15 kg/m3, the calorific energy content 16.67 which was similar to that of green oak wood. A One Tonne Gliricidia Tree has the capacity to sequestrate 3.0 Tonnes of CO2 and by extension, one Ha of gliricidia can sequestrate 146.8 Tonnes of CO2. 20 trees having average of 25 branches can sustain yam staking in a one hectare farmland. The report concluded that gliricidia has the potential to resolve the perennial cooking energy and environmental protection management conflict in the rural Sub-tropical Africa. It is capable of alleviating the stress associated with fuel wood sourcing and the poverty level among the rural dwellers of Africa particularly women and children.

  • Breeding and Rearing of Ornamental Fishes: As an Additional Income Generating Source Especially for Women
    Authors: Rajender Kumar Bishnoi

    Abstract : The present study deals with the culture and breeding of ornamental fish in small space - as an additional income generating source especially for women. The study was conducted for a period of 16 months from June, 2010 to September, 2011. The culture and breeding of golden carp and lemon tetra was done in glass aquaria of size 30" x 12" x 15" and 48"x 12"x 18"and cement tank of size 40" x 24" x 22with a regular monitoring of water quality parameters. Water exchange was also done when needed. The various water parameters such as temperature, pH, CO2 content, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity was determined daily during breeding period. Foods offered were mixed food which contains live food (Daphnia, mosquito larvae& earthworms), farax, readymade food and prepared food. Fishes were fed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. The breeding of above fishes were successfully done in glass aquaria and cement tanks. The average no. of eggs per female produced by golden carp and lemon tetra was 324 and 158 respectively. Although the no. of eggs produced was less. The reason for this is probably small size of brooder, small space for rearing of brooders, a short period of rearing of brooders in natural environment.

  • Water Quality Assessment of Godavari River at Nashik, India: Impact of Sewage and Industrial Wastewater
    Authors: Bawa Kalpana V. and V. B. Gaikawad

    Abstract : A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water quality at downstream of Godavari river at Nashikcity and its impact on Nashik Thermal Power Station, Eklahare. Water samples from six sampling stations were cot llected monthly, during period March 07 - February 08 and physico-chemical and chemical parameters were analyzed by the standard methods. The pollution level over a period of time is increasing on the river water mainly due to sewage, industrial and other wastewaters are directly discharge in the river. The use of Godavari river water is, mainly for domestic, industrial, agricultural purpose and huge amount of water is also utilized by Nashik Thermal Power Station for electricity generation. Hence the present study is aimed to examine the water quality of the Godavari river and to evaluate the impact of such contaminated water.

  • Studies on the Efficiency of Polyelectrolyte as Coagulant Aid
    Authors: Aswathy V Gopal, Arun O S, Gobinath.R, Arun prakash C, Vijayakumar.S, T.Shanmugam, C.Nagaraj

    Abstract : Thousands of educational institutions are developing in our country every year, in the recent decade there are institutions mushrooming all over the country, also they are generating huge amount of solid and liquid wastes that are to be managed effectively if not will be an environmental nuisance. Not many institutions are adopting proper treatment methodologies for purifying this waste generated and also not many studies had focussed this type of waste which are complex and does not follow the same properties of domestic waste water. Mostly the waste water arising from the educational institutions are matching the domestic waste condition but with varying combinations. Treatment of this kind of wastes are to be done as per the procedures of the domestic waste, coagulation plays a key role in the treatment of this wastes. Many coagulants were tried by researchers across the globe some in turn pollute including aluminium sulphate (alum). In this research an attempt is made at finding the efficiencies of magnesium chloride, as chemical coagulant to treat the waste water of educational institution which is not only cost effective but also does not harms the health. MgCl2 is added as coagulant with and without coagulant aid (polyelectrolyte) and the efficiency of mixture of magnesium chloride with poly electrolyte was tested. The result obtained by adding magnesium chloride proved that it can be use for the treatment of turbidity and transmittance in educational institution waste water. The results obtained when magnesium chloride combined with poly electrolyte were much better. It is found that nearly 97% removal of turbidity is achieved during this study and also 95% transmittance level is achieved, also complete odour removal is obtained by the coagulation process. Hence magnesium chloride can be effectively used as a coagulant aid with any chemical coagulant like polyelectrolyte and alum for treatment of waste water from educational institutions.

  • Phytoremediation of Pb and Ni Contaminated Soils Using Catharanthus roseus (L.)
    Authors: V. Subhashini, A. V. V. S. Swamy

    Abstract : Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Plants can help clean up many kinds of pollution including metals, pesticides, explosives and oil. This technology has been receiving attention as an innovative, cost-effective alternative to the more established treatment methods used at hazardous waste sites. Contaminated soils and waters pose a major environmental and human health problem. Oil refineries and chemical plants produce billions of gallons of contaminated wastewater each year. Soils may become contaminated by the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids through emissions from the rapidly expanding industrial areas, mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, leaded gasoline and paints, land application of fertilizers, animal manures, sewage sludge, pesticides, waste water irrigation, coal combustion residues, spillage of petrochemicals and atmospheric deposition. In the present study Catharanthus roseus has been used for lead and nickel phytoremediation. Pot experiments were conducted using aqueous solutions of lead and nickel. The two metal solutions were added to the pots for a period of 60 days on alternate days. Accumulations of the heavy metals were analyzed after 20, 40 and 60 days in leaves, stem and roots by AAS. The results showed that lead and nickel highly accumulated by the roots than stem and leaves. It was concluded that the plant species was a good accumulator of lead and nickel.

  • Fresh Water Algae as Indicators of Water Quality
    Authors: Shankar P. Hosmani

    Abstract : Algae as indicators of organic pollution in 20 lakes of southern Karnataka have been studied. The Palmer's algal index of organic pollution has been discussed. The IDSE/5 Diatom index is calculated using the OMNIDA software. The order of tolerance to organic pollution was calculated using the Garrett ranking technique. Nestedness of species in the lakes was also determined using the Nestedness calculator. According to the Palmer's index all the 20 lakes are organically polluted. Bogadi Lake was least while Dadadahalli Lake and Karanji Lake were heavily polluted. The present work compares the use of old and new techniques of detecting water quality. It also enables to understand weather algae can be of importance in conserving organically polluted lake waters. The nestedness analysis helps in detecting the autocathonous algae in each lake in contributing to organic pollution. The species index indicated that Doddakere Lake, Kabini Lake, Kalale lake, Kurubara lake, Hadhinaru Lake and Bogadi lake had low organic pollution. The diatom index showed that all lakes ranged between moderate and high organic pollution, but the degradation levels in the water were always high. Dadadahalli Lake has the highest organic pollution while Kalale Lake and Makanahally Lake were heavily polluted. Species of Euglena and Scenedesmus were the most tolerant species. Algae were highly nested in Dadadahalli Lake, Dalvoi Lake, Karanji Lake and were the most hospitable sites for growth of algae while most of the other lakes had idiosyncratic species. The matrix fill was low (59.5%) and the system temperature was warm (34.22o) indicating poor distribution of algal species. The use of modern tools in determining levels of organic pollution in lake ecosystems has been discussed.

  • Status of Water Quality and Heavy Metal Pollution from Coovum River, Tamilnadu, India
    Authors: R. Subramanian, C. Sheeba Anitha Nesakumari and N. Thirunavukkarasu

    Abstract : The Coovum River which was once navigable and recreational has now become a sink of garbage dumping and a sewage outlet. Two sampling stations were chosen - Arumbakkam and the Coovum River Mouth. All results obtained are corresponding to the monsoon (December 2009) and post - monsoon season (January 2010). Heavy eutrophication was a common occurrence. Levels of nutrients were high, but levels of essential nutrients, like sulphate, the electron acceptor of oxygen was very low. The water has almost no dissolved oxygen, and instead there are traces of heavy metals like copper, besides sewage and sludge. Apart from this, the microbial load of the river also has gone risen far above the optimum levels. Industries have largely contributed to the high metal concentrations in the waters. Alongside bank settlements and sewage disposals in the river has accounted to the heavy microbial load. It has reached far beyond saturation levels and is fully loaded with nutrients, metals and microbial load, which accounts to its unpleasant stench. This is of great concern, because it has a negative impact on our surroundings. It can be the breeding grounds for several infectious disease causing pathogens. Moreover, when this water enters the sea, it creates a huge impact on the water quality of the seas, especially at the mouth region. If this river is going to pollute at this rate, without any measures it will result in several health and environmental issues. Necessary steps should be taken to stop polluting these waters and steps to clean the Coovum river should be taken.

  • Study on Traditional Plants Utilized for the Treatment of Effluent with Special Reference to Palm Oil Mill Industry
    Authors: Kaladevi V. and Preetha S. S.

    Abstract : Palm oil is one of the most important vegetable oil. The extraction and purification process create a lot of waste and is known as palm oil mill effluent or POME. This research paper reviews the efficiency natural coagulants for the treatment of POME with cacti species and zeamaize. Temperature, initial pH, mixing time, mixing speed and coagulant dose were the constant parameters throughout the experiment. Further treatment efficiency was determined by pH, conductivity, alkalinity, Turbidity, hardness, TDS, TSS, oil and grease, BOD and COD of the sample are estimated by standard method. The result of this work indicates that both these traditional plants may contribute the treatment efficiency with respect to their potential characteristics. The significance of the study was also carried out by the correlation analysis.

  • Studies of Physicochemical Parameters of Water and Locked Soil of Narawala Reservoir of District Badwani M.P. (India)
    Authors: Yadav Janeshwar, Gupta Sarika, Chouhan Kailash, Bhatore Atul

    Abstract : In order to understand the water quality and locked soil of Narawal resesrvoir Physicochemical parameters were studied and analysed in November 2013. Various physicochemical parameters, such as water temperature, ph, turbidity, transparency, total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg hardness, alkalinity, chloride content, electrical conductivity, colour were analyzed. As above the physico chemical parameters of locked soil such as ph, colour, temperature, grain seize, specific gravity, moisture content, elasticity and plasticity were analyzed in above period.. The results revealed that there was significant variation in some physicochemical parameters and most of the parameters were in normal range and indicated better quality of reservoir water. It has been found that the water is best for drinking purpose in seasons. Narawala reservoir, a small inland reservoir located in Village Narawal, District Badwani, Madhya Pradesh, India. . The nutrients including are in sufficient quantities for the growth of aquatic animals in the reservoir. Therefore, the conservation and management of this water body is very much required. The result indicated that the some physico chemical parameters of reservoir water and locked soil were within the permissible limits and can be used for domestic and irrigation purpose but some of the parameters were above standered for drinking water so there is need for strict monitoring to ensure quality water supply for human health.

  • Ethiopian Dye plants As a Source of Natural Dyes for Cotton Dyeing
    Authors: Abera Kechi, R. B. Chavan, Reinhart Moeckel

    Abstract : The increasing demand for eco-friendly and sustainable dyes for textile coloration has prompted the revival of natural dyes particularly in Asian countries. However, in African country like Ethiopia though very rich in biodiversity, no scientific study has been made to identify natural dye yielding plants and explore the possibility of using natural dyes for coloration of natural fibers. Traditional natural dyeing experience is very limited and remains only in the hands of few craftsmen. In the present study an attempt has been made to identify 13 dye yielding plants from north- west and south- west regions of Ethiopia. The aqueous color extracts were used for the dyeing of un-mordanted and pre-mordanted cotton. The dyed samples were analyzed in terms of color yield (K/S), color difference (L* a* b*) and wash, rubbing and light fastness properties. As expected the cotton samples pre-mordanted with alum and ferrous sulphate showed increased depth of shade and improved wash and rub fastness compared to un-mordatned cotton. Though the wash and crock fastness results were commercially acceptable, light fastness was poor and there was a scope for its improvement. The study is of practical nature and of industrial importance. The chemical structure analysis of the color extracts is not within the scope of the present study.

  • Using Cassava Peelings to Reduce Input Cost of Concrete: A Waste-to-Wealth Initiative in Southwestern Nigeria
    Authors: Oladipo I. O., Adams, J. O. and Akinwande, J. T.

    Abstract : This work reports the outcome of an experiment using cassava peelings ash (CPA) of varying quantities to supplement cement in concrete work. The design of the experiment used 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 per cent cassava peeling ash. The concrete was batched with a ratio of 1:2:4. The cubes produced were allowed to cure for 28 days. Compressive strength test was conducted on the samples at interval of 7 days. The result obtained showed that compressive strength of the concrete increased with increase in length of setting, but decreased as the percentage of CPA. However, the strength still remained in the allowable range of workability for concrete in line with the British standard. With concrete mix using 15 - 20 per cent CPA was found to be the most suitable mix considering the strength and safe use of the concrete. It was concluded that this alternative use of cassava peelings will at the long run create supply paucity, attract higher economic value to cassava peelings, increase the economic return of the farmers and improve the environmental management of the study area.

  • Bioremediation of Oil Polluted Arable Soil by Enhanced Natural Attenuation
    Authors: Okeke P. N. and Egbo A. C.

    Abstract : This study evaluated the efficacy of microorganisms in total hydrocarbon (THC) degradation under the influence of tillage, nutrient supply (NPK Fertilizer) and liming. The treatment options were: Reduced tilling + Application of fertilizer (treatment A); soil mixing (contaminated + uncontaminated soils) + Application of fertilizer + conventional tilling (Treatment B); Application of fertilizer + conventional tilling (treatment C); then control. The second segment of the treatment options consisted of replication of treatments A, B and C and the addition of lime. The findings show that treatment C1 (Application of fertilizer + convention tilling + liming) recorded the highest population of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) of 67,000 x 103 cfu/g with 93% reduction of THC. This was followed by treatment B1 (soil mixing (contaminated + uncontaminated soils)) + Application of fertilizer + conventional tilling + liming) with HUB count of 56,000 x 103 cfu/g and percentage THC reduction of 86%; and then treatment C having HUB of 48,000 x 103 cfu/g and THC reduction of 75%. Results of all the options were significantly (P=0.05) higher than the control.

  • Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical Parameters and Primary Productivity of Shelar lake Bhiwandi, Thane, Maharashtra
    Authors: Archana Gupte and Nisar Shaikh

    Abstract : Water has unique physico-chemical properties. It serves both as a factor and an environmental medium or substratum in which organisms live. Water in the ponds, lakes and river basins is economically more important as it is medium that serves the members of a community who use it. Shelar Lake is a fresh water body with its prime earlier use for drinking and irrigation. Now a day, this water body is undertaken for fish cultivation. Water quality plays an important role in productivity of lake. In present investigation, physical and chemical parameters of the water body such as temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, TDS, DO, BOD, COD, free CO2, alkalinity, nitrates, nitrites, sulphate and phosphate along with primary productivity were analyzed seasonally. The productivity of the lake was found to be influenced by some of the physical and chemical parameters of the lake water.