Current Issue : Volume 3, Issue 3

In this issue:

RESEARCH ARTICLES

  • Water Quality Assessment of River Gomti in Lucknow
    Authors: Dhananjay Kumar, Anjali Verma, Namita Dhusia and Nandkishor More

    Abstract : Gomti river originates from Madhoganj Tanda village in Pilibhit district, U.P. It passes through the district of Shahjahanpur, Kheri, Hardoi, Sitapur, Lucknow, Barabanki, Sultanpur, Jaunpur and ultimately merges in Ganga. The world is facing problems with a wide variety of pollutants both inorganic and organic in nautre. Healthy soil, clean water and air are the soul of life. Often soil, water and air are no longer clean and pure, but pose human health risks. Gomti receives huge quantities of untreated sewage, agricultural runoff, brings lot of pesticides, fertilizer, street washouts bringing oil, asphalt, sediment and many types of heavy metals. From industrial effluents to domestic discharge, the river becomes more of a flowing dumping yard. The physicochemical parameters in water of river Gomti were assessed to know about the water quality in its catchment area. Total of fifteen sampling sites were selected between Guaghat upstream and Gomti Barrage. Parameters like Temperature, Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved solid (TDS), pH, Hardness, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Nitrate, Nitrite, Chlorine, Total Coliforms and some Heavy metals were determined. Changes in water quality of River Gomti due to variations in quantity of parameters were found. Heavy metals mainly Iron, Cadmium, Copper and Arsenic were noticed.

  • Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Textile Wastewaters and Screening of Bacterial Strains for Dye Decolourisation
    Authors: Neha Sharma*, Sreemoyee Chatterjee, Pradeep Bhatnagar

    Abstract : Textile industries considerably contributes to water pollution of adjoining surface water bodies which in turn remarkably alters biological, chemical and physical nature of the water bodies. In the present investigation, textile wastewater samples were collected from Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Pali, Rajasthan, to monitor the quality of effluent generated by CETP. Grab Sampling was carried out in the months of October-2011 and April-2012 in accordance with standard procedures (APHA, 1998).The objectives of present study were to assess the major physicochemical parameters like temperature, pH, colour, DO, BOD, COD, alkalinity, chloride, hardness, nitrate, phosphate, TS, TDS of inlet, primary clariflocculator, aeration tank and outlet .The second objective was to isolate and characterize the indigenous bacterial strains which would decolourise textile diazo dye from the above mentioned sites. A total of 10 bacterial strains were isolated and were screened for their dye decolourising efficacy. The preliminary screening was carried out by plate assay which exhibited clear zones around bacterial colonies. The final screening was carried out in screening broth supplemented with 200mg/l diazo dye under standard conditions of temperature (37C), pH(7.2) and incubation period(48-72 hours). Dye decolurising efficacy of bacterial strains was expressed as decrease in absorbance (?max=495.5nm) from initial 1.213 to final 0.211,0.194.0.28 for Staphylococcus sp.(82.54%), Serratia sp.(84%) and Micrococcus sp.(76.57%)respectively.

  • Sorbents Performance Efficiency Test
    Authors: Moses O. Bereiweriso

    Abstract : Crude oil spillage had been a major concern to the Nigerian government and particularly to the people of the Niger Delta region because of the devastating effects, not just on the ecosystem of the region, but also, on the health implication on the people where this crude oil activities are always carried out. When crude oil spills it takes different pathways to the receptors that may be human beings, plants, sea foods, and other organisms. This means, there are health implications of oil spillage directly or indirectly. Based on these effects, various mechanical sorption methods for oil spill remediation had been applied. These methods involve sorption of spilled oil on water and on land with different trade marks. All, with the intention of remediating the impacted areas that had faced brutality of oil spillage(s). However, the efficiencies of these different trademark products needs to be known in order to identify the product that gives the best result of remediating the impacted sites. In this paper, the following sorption materials are used to identify the most effective sorption products of the three (3) different sorptions applied: FOSS, SPILL TECH and CEP-SAPKL. The tests carried out on each were: Reuse test, efficiency test, pickup time test, both low and high rate oil exposure test. Also, calculation of efficiency, net oil retaining, recovery efficiency, obtained oil adsorbed, oil adsorbed, water and oil absorbency buoyancy, degree of deterioration, absorbency ratio, and percentage of oil removed by the products was done.

  • Study of Jatropha Curcas Growth in Fly Ash Amended Soil
    Authors: Surjyoti S. Bagchi

    Abstract : Jatropha curcas is gaining importance commercially as a biodiesel plant. It can be grown in wastelands. The present study has been performed in an attempt to examine its growth and survival in fly ash amended wasteland.Studies have proved that organic carbon is enhanced in 30% fly ash amended soil from 0.46% to 1.2%.Considering a 2m x 3m planting, having 1666 plants per hectare, the total fresh biomasses produced in 'only soil' and 30% fly ash amended soil are 24.8 t/ha and 36.9 t/ha respectively. Similarly total dry biomasses in 'only soil' and 30% fly ash amended soil are 8t/ha are 14 t/ha respectively. Heavy metal uptake is enhanced in roots when fly ash amended soil is used. The study suggests that the plant has the potential of establishing itself on fly ash amended soil. It can accumulate heavy metals many folds from soil without attenuating the plant growth and can be considered as a hyper-accumulator of zinc and iron.

  • Sorption Ability of Modified Fruit Nut Shells in the Removal of Co (II) ions from Aqueous Solutions
    Authors: N. Muthulakshmi Andal and S. Charulatha

    Abstract : The present work deals with the efficiency of modified Terminalia catappa seed shell (TCSS), an agricultural waste, for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous solutions. Three methods of modifications of the sorbent material have been done and the experiments were carried out by employing batch equilibration method. The influences of variable parameters viz., particle sizes and adsorbent dosages of the sorbent material, agitation time, initial concentrations of the sorbate solutions, pH, cations, anions, co-ions and temperatures have been studied. The surface characteristic study of the modified TCSS has been supported by FT-IR, SEM and EDAX techniques. The linearity of the isothermal plots suggests that the Co(II) - TCCS system obeys Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models.

  • Postnatal Development of Thymus in Male Swiss Mice
    Authors: Ragini Sharma, S. M. Kantwa*, Amrita Jaitawat, Deepika Rani and Neelam Jain

    Abstract : Puberty is one of the most important stages in the postnatal development of mammals. There is paucity of age related histological studies in developing thymus. Due to the variation in the onset of pubertal development there is some basic difference in the development of thymus in male and female mice so present study deals with the developmental changes which occur in thymus of male Swiss mice. To evaluate the developing changes in the thymus healthy pregnant female Swiss mice were used. After parturition the thymus of their pups were removed on 1st, 21st, 35th and 49th day, fix, embed and sections prepare for the histological study. At the time of birth the components of thymus are very clear but no differentiation between the cortical and medullary components are apparent. On 35th day Cortical and medullary epithelial cells got their maximum number, largest size and appropriate shape. Different developing T-lymphocytes are present but immature and apoptotic cells are also found due to thymic involution on 49th day. We conclude that Right from birth to puberty there are progressive architectural changes in the thymic component but after puberty retrogressive changes noted due to age associated thymic atrophy. We also conclude that the gonadal hormones are responsible for this type of age related thymic involution.

  • Compressed Natural Gas in India: Contemporizing the Delhi Pollution Case
    Authors: Alwyn Sebastian and 2 Shonali Thangiah

    Abstract : In 1998, the Indian Supreme Court, embracing its activist role, issued a controversial order suo moto mandating the conversion of the entire Delhi fleet of diesel powered buses to compressed natural gas (CNG). The judgment of the apex court came as a surprise to the executive agencies that lacked the technology and finances to implement the impugned order. Although the judgment seemed novel in letter and spirit, it led to exasperated tensions between the organs of the State. The paper aims at providing tentative solutions to address these tensions, thereby upholding the doctrine of separation of powers. The paper also provides solutions to improve the functioning of the Pollution Control Boards, and examines the need and viability of implementing the use of CNG across India. An international perspective on the matter is also provided.

  • Assessment of Pathogen Removal Potential of Root Zone Technology from Domestic Wastewater
    Authors: Kumer S. Makvana1*and Manish K. Sharma

    Abstract : Root zone technology using constructed wetland (CW) for the treatment of domestic waste water was selected for the present study. Selected wetland unit was built during 2000 on the unused soil of Education College receiving the discharge of the sewage from the Ravindra Nagar (residential colony) at Ujjain (230 12' N latitude, 750 42'E longitude), situated in Madhya Pradesh, India. Results reveal that the mean reduction of indicator bacteria, total coliform and faecal coliform was 96% and 99% respectively in the inlet and outlet waste water from constructed wetland. Average reduction of waterborne bacterial pathogens, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio was 94%, 87% and 94% respectively through constructed wetland in three seasons e.g., rainy, winter and summer. Data collected from the experiments were statistically significant over their respective controls. The overall study strongly recommends the use of constructed wetland for treatment of domestic waste water for pathogenic bacteria, besides pollutant. Although it was a preliminary study, but originality of results are quite promising in terms of pathogenic bacterial removal from the wastewater.

  • Physico-Chemical Quality of Drinking Water in The Autumn Season of Tetova City, Macedonia
    Authors: Bujar H. Durmishi, Arianit A. Reka, Murtezan Ismaili and Agim Shabani

    Abstract : Water is the most essential product that is consumed by humans, which must be prevented from deterioration in quality. The quality of drinking water becomes even more important as water borne diseases spread through water. For this purpose, we assess the quality of drinking water in the city of Tetova with some physico-chemical parameters, which have a significant role in determining the potability of drinking water. The obtained results were compared with Macedonian standards as well as with those set by the WHO and the EU. In this research, parameters such as temperature, pH, EC, TRAE, TDS, COD, TOC, DOC, nitrates and chlorides were found to be within the permissible limits, while turbidity and residual chlorine in some cases were found to be below ore above the recommended limit. Finally, the Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) developed by Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for fifteen sample points is calculated. It has been found that drinking water in the 2011 autumn season was of a Good category (average value of DWQI = 90.62) and suitable for drinking. We recommend that the relevant municipal authorities make regular and proper amount disinfection of drinking water, as there is no compromise that can be made when it comes to the drinking water.

  • Physical, Chemical and Environmental Studies on Cauvery River in Parts of Tamil Nadu (Mettur and Bhavani)
    Authors: R. Venkatachalapathy and P. Karthikeyan

    Abstract : Studies on diatom of river Cauvery water, Mettur and Bhavani Salem District, Tamil Nadu was made to assess the pollution of water from May 2011. Our work was focused on Physico-chemical and environmental studies of Cauvery River in parts of Tamil Nadu. Macrophytes and water samples were collected from unpolluted and polluted sites along Cauvery River course, some ions from water also analyzed. Analysis of diatom communities has been performed in order to quantity the level of pollution in Cauvery River. The present study revealed that the water of Cauvery in Mettur and Bhavani are highly polluted by direct contamination of sewage and other industrial effluents. The source of pollution is most probably the dying factory and sewage from Kumarapalaiyam. The structure of diatom communities is strongly influenced by the different pollution source from this area.

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

  • Transport of Indicator Microorganisms from an Onsite Wastewater System to Adjacent Stream
    Authors: Harris, J. and Humphrey, C. P., and O'Driscoll, M. A.

    Abstract : The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a residential onsite wastewater treatment system (OWS) in reducing E. coli and enterococci concentrations. Groundwater wells were installed upgradient and downgradient of an OWS. Samples were collected from the septic tank, wells, and adjacent stream 4 times and analyzed for E. coli and enterococci concentrations, and for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. The OWS reduced E. coli concentrations by more than 99% and enterococci concentrations by 37%. Groundwater downgradient from the OWS had elevated pH, electrical conductivity and microbial concentrations relative to groundwater upgradient from the OWS. The treatment efficiency of the OWS at this site could be enhanced if the drainfield trenches were elevated to provide a thicker vadose zone.