Current Issue : Volume 3, Issue 2

In this issue:


  • Assessment of Water Quality Index in Cauvery River Basin: A Case Study on Tiruchchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India
    Authors: C.Gajendran and A.Jesumi

    Abstract : Maintaining the quality of water is very essential in order to utilize the resource effectively. Rapid industrial and urban development's often witness deterioration of water quality. It is important to assess the baseline characteristics of river water quality so that, sustainable development can be pursued. This study emphasizes on Cauvery River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Data has been collected for twenty years for different physiochemical parameters of water quality for about seventy five villages in Tiruchchirappalli district. Water Quality Index is a means to summarize large amounts of water quality data into simple terms for reporting to management and the public in a consistent manner. The Water Quality Index has been evaluated using Microsoft Excel for the parameters considered. The variables of interest are Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, Sulphate, Bicarbonates, Nitrates, Fluoride, pH, Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium. The WQI obtained from the result ranged from 34.47 to 730.96. The analysis reveals that none of the villages have excellent quality of water. About 20% of the villages have moderately polluted water. In about 28% of villages, water is very poor and 52% of the villages have water which is unsuitable for drinking in Tiruchchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India.

  • Ecological Evaluation of Seasonal Dynamism in Physicochemical Characteristics of Tropical Reservoir in Central India
    Authors: Arun Kumar Namdeo, Pradeep Shrivastava and Sarita Sinha

    Abstract : The present study was carried out to make an ecological evaluation of physico - chemical characteristics in Barna reservoir during various seasons. Barna reservoir is a tropical reservoir which is constructed on river Barna, a tributary of river Narmada in central India. For evaluation of seasonal changes in water quality of Barna reservoir water samples were collected on monthly basis for a certain period from January 2009 to December 2009 and a total of 19 parameters were analyzed according to standard methods. The results revealed that the ecology of Barna reservoir in different seasons showed dynamism in physico - chemical parameters which could be due to various factors like input of fertilizers, weathering of rocks, meteorological phenomenon and other activities in catchment area.

  • Bacteriological and Physicochemical Study on the Water of an Aquifer in Mexico
    Authors: Esperanza Robles, Elizabeth Ramirez, María de Guadalupe Sáinz, Angel Duran and María Elena González

    Abstract : Water pollution through wastewater is a serious problem in Mexico. For this reason, the possibility of contamination of aquifers is latent. In the literature there are reports that some aquifers are contaminated, on the other hand the country has been divided into aquifers 653: 101 are overexploited, they provide 58% of groundwater intended for all uses. Consequently it is important study the aquifers to meet its water quality and take action to prevent contamination and to not put at risk the health of users. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater in Morelos state which, for administrative purposes, is divided into four aquifers: Cuernavaca, Zacatepec, Cuautla-Yautepec and Tepalcingo-Axochiapan. From 2005 to 2010, bi-monthly samples were drawn from each aquifer for one year to find out if there are contaminated areas to take action. Principal use of water in this state is urban and agricultural. In total, thirty-seven wells were sampled. Aquifer Tepalcingo-Axochiapan showed marked difference in the dissolved solids respect to the other aquifers. The average physicochemical parameters were below the levels permitted by the NOM-127-SSA1-1994, on water for human consumption. Bacteriologically, all the wells showed contamination in at least one sample. Nevertheless, although the dilution capacity of the aquifer has so far prevented the water quality from deteriorating, there are already areas where anthropic contamination is evident.

  • Effects of Cadmium on Digestive Organs of Teleost Fish Ophiocephalus (Channa)
    Authors: R. Ananda Babu

    Abstract : Heavy metals and their salts constitute a very important group of environment pollutants. Since they are potent metabolic inhibitors of both terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. The various heavy metals Zn, Cd and Cu are widely distributed and important as regard to their deleterious effects. Cadmium is a heavy metal and well known as a toxicant that could have an adverse effect on fish. The sources responsible for cadmium contamination are mainly of the anthropogenic origin, food; cigarette smokings are the most important sources of cadmium apart from water. The fish showed pathological changes in cadmium. Cadmium has induced marked pathological changes in fish gills, liver tissue of Channa punctatus exposed to cadmium toxicity evidenced marked pathological changes. Discrete pathological changes were noticed in the intestine of the fishes exposed to cadmium at different duration with the same concentration of 172 ppm. This paper explained about histopathological changes induced by cadmium on digestive organs of Channa punctatus.

  • Variation in Phytoplankton Diversity and Its Relationship with Abiotic Environment of a Temple Pond in Birpur (J&K) India
    Authors: Aarti Devi and Neha Antal

    Abstract : Investigations were carried out on the diversity of phytoplankton in relation to physico-chemical parameters with respect to water quality status of a subtropical pond, "Datte da Talab in J&K. The physico-chemical parameters showed well-marked seasonal variations. A total of 21 genera belonging to three different groups (Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae) were recorded during the study period with maxima in winter season and minima in summer season. Qualitatively and quantitatively Bacillariophyceae dominated all other classes followed by Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae. No apparent differences were found in phytoplankton composition at all the sampling sites. Phytoplankton community when correlated with physico-chemical parameters indicated that the distribution and density of phytoplankton species was influenced by physical and chemical factors of the pond environment. Phytoplankton showed significant correlation with certain abiotic parameters such as water and air temperature, phosphates, carbonates and chlorides. The various kinds of indices such as Margalef's index, Menhinck's index, Simpson index, Shannon- Wiener index and Equitability index were used to support the data.

  • Integrated Geospatial Techniques for Land-use/Land-cover and Forest Mapping of Deciduous Munger Forests (India)
    Authors: Suman Sinha, Laxmi Kant Sharma, Mahendra Singh Nathawat

    Abstract : The present study attempts to generate land-use/land-cover (LULC) and forest map using standard False-Colour composite (FCC) of satellite imagery of IRS P6 LISS III for a deciduous forest area of Munger in Bihar, India. The method adopted is an integration of geospatial techniques and field data to accurately map the LULC of the study area. Forest classification through unsupervised, supervised and visual interpretation is carried out to observe a corresponding gradual enhanced classification accuracy of the methods applied. Nearly 89% of the area is covered under forest out of which the dominant forest types are mixed Shorea robusta (Sal), Acacia catechu (Khair) and Dendrocalamus sp. (Bamboo) forests. The major constraint of the study is the inaccessibility of most of the area. The integrated geospatial approach overcomes this problem to a great extent and reveals its potential for gathering information from remote areas without directly intervening in the area. The study proposes the application of satellite remote sensing and geospatial techniques for future environmental monitoring and forest dynamics studies.

  • Seasonal Variation in Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Various Plant Species of Baroda City
    Authors: Tanushree Bhattacharya, Leena Kriplani, Sukalyan Chakraborty

    Abstract : Clean air, pure water and nutritious food are basic amenities of life but the quality of air, water and land is deteriorating continuously. Air Pollution is any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentration that can produce undesirable effects on man & its environment Industrial air pollution is more complex than most other environmental challenges. Air pollution tolerance level differs from plant to plant. To evaluate the tolerance level of plant species to air pollution, four leaf parameters are used to drive an empirical number indicating the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI). Air pollution tolerance index has also been used to rank plant species in their order of tolerance to air pollution. The aim of this study is therefore to determine the APTI values of six plants species which were collected from 9 sites of Baroda city. Leaf samples of selected plant species found at all the sampling sites were collected i.e Azadirachta indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Ficus bengalensis, Mangifera indica, Acacia arabica & Peltophorum pterocarpum in three different seasons (Monsoon, Winter& Summer). Chlorophyll value was highest during monsoon season & decreased in winter and summer. All the plant samples collected from polluted site exhibited a pH towards acidic side. Present study showed higher leaf relative water content in all the species was in monsoon season. Whereas the higher average ascorbic acid concentration was found in winter season followed by summer and least in monsoon. Based on the highest calculated APTI irrespective of the season the plants were found to having the following order Polyalthia longifolia>Azadirachta indica>Ficus bengalensis> Acacia Arabica>Peltophorum pterocarpum>Mangifera indica. But if the average APTI values of all the season is to be considered then the order will be as follows: Azadirachta indica>Polyalthia longifolia>Mangifera indica>Ficus bengalensis> Acacia arabica>Peltophorum pterocarpum. Except Acacia all the other species showed insignificant seasonal variation in APTI according to ANOVA, ?=0.05. So far, this aspect of pollution management was not studied in the study area. So, this study may particularly be helpful for the air pollution management of the city specially during aforestation programmes.

  • Selection of Sustainable Bivoltine Foundation Crosses to Be Used As Male Components with Multivoltines under West Bengal Conditions
    Authors: N. Suresh Kumar, A. K. Saha and B. B. Bindroo

    Abstract : The objective of this breeding study was to develop and identify superior bivoltine breeds possessing the desired targeted traits on productivity along with higher survival under the varied and fluctuation climatic conditions of West Bengal. Initially bivoltine breeds collected from different parts of the country were screened under the ambient conditions of West Bengal. The breeds with high survival with moderate productivity traits were selected as potential parents for this study. By utilising these parental breeds foundation crosses (both ovals and dumbbells) were made and subjected for evaluation under the ambient conditions of West Bengal. Based on the overall performance few oval and dumbbell foundation crosses were identified.

  • Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ground Water of Vuyyuru, Part of East Coast of India
    Authors: Janardhana Rao D., Hari Babu B, Swami AVVS and Sumithra S

    Abstract : Quality of water is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation. The ground water samples were collected and subjected for a comprehensive physico - chemical analysis. The following 19 parameters have been considered viz. pH, Electrical Conductivity, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Total Dissolved Solids, dissolved oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, phosphate, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, cadmium, manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, copper and lead. On comparing the results against drinking quality standards laid by World Health Organization, it was found that some of the water quality parameters were above the permissible limit and some were not. More over this study may help other regions in understanding the potential threats to their ground water resources.

  • A Survey of Weed Flora in Crop Fields of Satara Tahsil (M.S.), India
    Authors: Patil Vishwas S. and Jadhav Prakash S.

    Abstract : Weeds cause serious ecological problems. Weeds contribute significantly to reduced crop yield and quality even though several management programmes have been used. The present study was conducted to explore the weed flora in crop fields of Satara tahsil in Maharashtra state. The study was based on extensive and intensive field surveys made in different months of Kharif and Rabi seasons during 2012- 2013. Crop fields from the study area were surveyed for the weed population studies. A total of 85 angiospermous weeds were identified. Out of 85 weed species, 68 were dicots and 17 were monocots. According to the frequency, three dominant weed species were found to be Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoidis and Euphorbia geniculata.

  • Effect of Spatial Variation on Plant Community Structure in South Sinai, Egypt
    Authors: Om-Mohamed A. Khafagi, El-Bialy E. Hatab and Ahmed A. Mohamed

    Abstract : The effect of spatial variation on plant community structure was studied through the comprehension to eco-geographical and climatic variables. The present study was carried out on four wadis at different elevation (Wadi Gebal at 1722-1916 m above sea level, Wadi Gharaba at 1110-1217 m a.s.l., Wadi Hodra at 600-700 m a.s.l. and Wadi Khoshbi 20-120 m a.s.l.) in Saint Katherine Protectorate, south Sinai, Egypt between March and September 2011. In this study, we used a multivariate analysis, GIS and descriptive analysis to ensure the best using and orientation for the information. As a result for the available data and analysis, we get good outputs that can help in support any conservation actions for the ecosystem. The indices of Simpson, Shannon-Weiner and Birllouin were used to estimate the floral diversity on 4 locations. Estimates showed that Wadi Gebal is the most value of diversity index (4.19) according to Shannon-Weiner Index, while the lowest value (2.7) recorded in W. Khoshbi, and the others two wadis showed, Wadi Gharaba (3.61), Wadi Hodra (3.135). The total vegetation cover over the study area was determined about 30 % of the total area studied (5000 m2). The maximum cover percentage was record in W. Gebal (38%), while the lowest value was 19% recorded in W. Gharaba. Physical and Chemical prosperities of soil showed great variation among the different elevation ranks. Results found that soil pH, and organic matter values decreased with elevation while HCO3 increased with elevation. T.D.S and EC increased with elevation without Location Wadi Hodra between 599-697m was decreased. The most stands at Wadi Gebal and Wadi Hodra finds in Northeast aspect, while most stands in Wadi Gharaba finds in NW aspect and Wadi Khoshbi in South aspect. The climatic results could explain by two words "altitudinal gradient"; because W. Gebal is the highest elevated point it received cool temperature and high rain W. Khoshbi is the lowest one in this area it receive high temperature and low rains; however, for each 1,000-foot rise in altitude there is a 4°F drop in temperature. It discerned that great variation in vegetation distribution and plant community structure, this variation may result from the variation of elevation, aspect, and slope ranks between different locations. Result for the available data was found that spatial variation play a great role in the variation of plant community structure from variation in altitudinal and latitudinal variation that leads to variation in climatic conditions and consequently, makes changes in all ecosystem components.

  • Surface Ozone Measurements in Southernmost Tip of Peninsular India
    Authors: R. Krishna Sharma, T. Chithambara Thanu, K. Elampari

    Abstract : Surface Ozone pollution is one of the largely ignored problems of many countries of the world. It can have very toxic effects to biotic and abiotic factors. It is a potential oxidant and a radical which can react readily with other materials. Measurements of surface ozone concentration were carried out for the first time in Kanyakumari (8°4'33''N and 77°32'53'' E), one of the beautiful tourist spots in India, for a period of three years from March 2010 - February 2013.No air quality studies were done in the study area during the past, even though the place of study is of geographical importance. Surface ozone concentration varied between 11 ppb and 55 ppb. The daily average values lied between 20.17 ppb and 36.35 ppb. A clear diurnal cycle following the global pattern was observed with minimum values during early morning hours and maximum at afternoon hours. Summer season recorded the highest surface ozone concentration and north east monsoon with the lowest concentration. The seasonal average of diurnal amplitude of surface ozone concentration for the entire three years was found to lie between 23.50 ppb and 30.82 ppb. During the entire period of study, surface ozone was found to be positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity .A neural network model was performed to forecast the peak hour ozone concentration. The improved model yielded a good correlation between the actual and predicted data points.

  • Primary Productivity in Relation to Planktonic Biodiversity in a Stretch of Gang Canal (Rajasthan)
    Authors: R. K.Bishnoi, B. K.Sharma, V. S. Durve and L. L. Sharma

    Abstract : The primary productivity of any aquatic ecosystem depends on the planktonic biodiversity. The estimation of primary productivity of a water body helps in measuring its ability to support a biological population and sustain a level of growth and respiration. It is the most important of all biological phenomena on which the entire diverse life depends directly or indirectly. The phytoplankton of Gang canal comprises of 16 species belonging to 15 genera. Out of these, 8 species belong to Bacillariophyceae, 5 to Chlorophyceae, 2 to Myxophyceae and 1 to Xanthophyceae. The present investigation was carried out to estimate the primary productivity of Gang canal. The annual yield at the four stations, of Gang canal gives the average GPP as 0.132gc/m3/hr at station 1 while NPP was 0.089gc/m3/hr. At station 2, the corresponding values were 0.130 and 0.088gc/m3/hr respectively. At stations 3 and 4 the average GPP values were 0.118 and 0.119gc/m3/hr respectively, while the NPP was 0.08gc/m3/hr on both the stations. The overall average values for the GPP and NPP in the Gang canal, based on the data of all the four stations were 0. 124gc/m3/hr as GPP and 0.084gc/m3/hr as NPP (Table 1.3).

  • Modelling of Irrigation Water Quality of Coastal Area Using Back Propagation-Multi Layer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network
    Authors: S. Sathiyamurthi, S. Saravanan

    Abstract : Irrigation water quality is one of the main yield factor in the cultivation of agricultural and horticultural crops in arid, semi-arid and coastal areas. In past two decades, irrigation water quality and quantity problems increasing severely because of improper management and industrialization. The main aim of this study is to describe the applicability of artificial neural network that can effectively predict quality of irrigation water in the above areas. The study was conducted over 17 villages of coastal Chidambaram Taluk and about 170 samples were collected. Irrigation samples were analysed for Physico-chemical properties, various cationic and anionic constituents outlined. Based on the analysis, 70% of the samples were determined by saline and 30 percent samples were alkaline in reaction. Data obtained from chemical analysis were used in the ANN model to predict pH and electrical conductivity. The results of this study proved that MLPBP-ANN is effectively predicting irrigation water quality of coastal area.

  • Forecasting of Ground Level Ozone around Chennai by Artificial Neural Network
    Authors: R. Samuel Selvaraj, C. P. Sachithananthem, K. Thamizharasan

    Abstract : The aim of this research was to develop pure predictive models to provide short-term prediction of near surface ozone concentration for the Chennai capital city of Tamilnadu. The short-term prediction of near surface ozone levels is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. A new method for short-term prediction is presented using the neural network technique. Due to increase in industrial and anthropogenic activity, air pollution is a serious subject of concern today. Ground level ozone prediction using the technique of adaptive pattern recognition is developed. The model can predict the mean surface ozone based on the parameters like wind speed, temperature and % Relative Humidity. The Mean absolute Percentage of error of the data during testing is 8.647%. The model can perform well both in training and independent periods.

  • Evaluation of Environmental Indicators in the City of Piranshahr
    Authors: Hassan Houshyar, Asadullah Divsalar and Mohammad Moradi

    Abstract : Expanding urbanization and its specific problems such as environmental degradation pollution of water, air, soil, increase mental illnesses and so much more is threatening the city's society. This is contrary to sustainable urban development and the environment and today, cause has been urban management, with a host of challenges faced in the field of population density, housing shortages, pollution and environmental destruction, social conflict, and providing services and infrastructure facilities. In this regard, the Healthy City Project plays an important role in the creation of public participation in the sustainable development of cities. Environmental indicators are a necessary tool to achieve environmental progress, supporting policy assessments and public information. The present study has been an analysis of environmental indicators Piranshahr According to available statistics, the physical structure of the city, and has been providing solutions for quality indicators in order to achieve a suitable space for improvement available.

  • Influence of Soil Particle Size and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in the Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris Grown under Crude Oil Contaminated Soil
    Authors: Chris O. Nwokoa, Peter N. Okekea and Princewill C. Ogbonnab

    Abstract : Biotic processes represent the major route responsible for the ecological recovery of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of soil textural class and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the performance of Phaseolus vulgaris under crude oil contaminated soil. Three soils of different textural class viz: clay loam soil (clay 52%), sandy clay soil (clay 30%), sandy loamy soil (clay 8%) were used to grow P. vulgaris under 2%, 4% and 8% (v/w) crude oil contamination. The experimental units were biostimulated with 2 g NPK fertilizer pot-1 and were inoculated with 12 g AM inoculum pot-1. Non inoculated pots served as control. The results obtained showed that AM inoculated pots recorded higher and significantly (P<0.05) different dry matter yields and chlorophyll content than non AM inoculated pots. Residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) increased as percent crude oil contamination increased at each soil textural class. Total petroleum hydrocarbon decomposition and removal was highest at 52% clay textural class (2.57mg/g) and significantly differed from 30% clay (3.26 mg/g) and 8% (4.26 mg/g). With AM colonization, physiological characteristics of P.vulgaris and TPH decomposition improved. This is evinced by the linear regression analysis between colonization and TPH (R2=0.77).

  • Water Audit of Breweries: A Case Study of a Modern Brewery in Ghana
    Authors: Kenneth Bedu-Addo, William Gariba Akanwariwiak, Isaac Frimpong Mensa-Bonsu

    Abstract : A modern brewery code named brewery X has been in operation for over four decades in Ghana, producing beer and other drinks in bottles. During this period freshwater consumption, wastewater flows and pollution loads have increased significantly with increasing production, resulting in permissible discharge limit concerns. Considerable volumes of wastewater high in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved solids (DS) as well as suspended solids (SS) are produced as a result of washing the vessels and equipment used for brewery X' batch operations. A three phase approach involving a pre-audit, an audit and a post audit stage was employed in the study. Samples collected from brewery X' effluent discharge point was subjected to laboratory analysis using standard methods to ascertain the exact concentrations of effluent parameters after which graphPad Prism 5 was used to analyze the data. Means for the main pollution indicators showed significant differences (P<0.005) in comparison with the EPA's permissible discharge limits for food and beverage processing companies. Total fresh water consumed and wastewater generated amounted to 532,693m3 and 449,835m3 respectively with water to beer ratio of 7hl/1hl. There is great variability in the nature of the effluent from brewery X and would need equalization to abate the pollution of water bodies.

  • Optimization and Ef?ciency in Rainbow Trout Fed Diets for Reduce the Environment Impact in Morocco
    Authors: Aba Mustapha, Belghyti Driss, Elkharrim Khadija, Benabid Mohammed

    Abstract : A 60 days field trial was conducted in a private fish farm. The trial was conducted at two circular tanks , in order to investigate the effect of extruded and pelleted fish diet on the growth performance and their impacts on environment of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) . The groups of rainbow trout at average initial weights of 474 g . Following this study, two diets were formulated: the extruded food with 42% crude protein, 28% fat and 17% carbohydrate while the pressed food with 44.7% Crude Protein, 15% fat and 28.6 carbohydrates with digestible energy of 20.9 Mj and 16.48 Mj.Within a 60 day-experiment, significant variation in weight gain and SGR are recorded between the extruded and the pelleted diet. . The best conversion rate was obtained with the extruded food with 1.17 v.s 1.56. The extruded feed emits less nitrogen by the effect of the protein-sparing as we also note this food contains less phosphate that releases phosphate discharges decreased by fish.


  • Impact of Pesticides and Biopesticides on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon
    Authors: Sonia Sethi, Saksham Gupta

    Abstract : Soil microorganisms have a primary role in the environment through degradation of plant and animal residues. The activities of microorganisms in soil are thus essential to the global cycling of nutrients. As these pesticides are designed to be biologically active their continuous use might affect soil microflora which may lead to impairment in soil fertility. The effect of five pesticides (Cypermethrin, Malathion, Victor, Monocil and Tafgor) and five biopesticides (Folicon, Paeciliomyces lilacinus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas florescens and Beauveria bassiana) on soil microbial biomass carbon was assessed under laboratory conditions. Pesticide treatment resulted in short lived transient toxic effect on soil microbial biomass carbon. The microbial biomass carbon content of soil increased with time in biopesticide treated soil which has a good role in agriculture production. In case of Victor treated soil, a drastic decrease in microbial biomass carbon was observed as compared to other pesticides used. Biomass carbon increased with the biopesticides treatment and the increase was found to be maximum with Paeciliomyces lilacinus.

  • Analysis of Mining Operations in the Forest Demarcated as No Go Zones
    Authors: Pratik Pandya

    Abstract : Forest area in our country is classified into Go Zones and No Go Zones based on their crown density. No Go Zones are dense forest areas where mining operations cannot be permitted. However, for extraction of coal lying underneath, permission for diverting these areas for mining was given. There is a high probability that this would have produced a negative impact on biodiversity, indigenous people and environment. As forests are one of the major carbon sink, they could have aided in mitigating the alarming issue of great concern-ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE. Following study deals with the impacts of reducing the forest area demarcated as No-Go Zones, the probable solutions that could have been taken for avoiding it and meeting with the energy needs, calculations for carbon stock capacity and value of mitigation. Calculations for carbon stock capacity and value of mitigation has been done for 1, 40, 311 ha forest area on the basis of secondary data. The issue had been tracked until 7/5/2011.The blocks which were later on exempted from No Go Zones and classified as Go-Zones are not mentioned. In this issue a lot more could have been done if, the willingness for doing things would have been more than, the excuse promoted as facts. Future is always projected with respect to the actions performed by us now; however, at times we proceed on dark roads, just to get haunted for our sins and bad karmas later. Some similar things are happening currently, with this issue as base.