Volume 3, Issue 1

In this issue:


  • Fermentation of Biomass for Production of Ethanol: A Review
    Authors: Zuber Khan and Anjani K. Dwivedi

    Abstract : The Present world energy scenario is focused at nonconventional sources. The biomass has emerged as one of the dependable nontraditional feed stocks for the production ethanol. The present review enlighten various feed stocks viz. sugar beets, sugar cane corn, wheat, barley etc. and fermentation methods for the production of ethanol. The use of biomass for clean energy generation in the European Union is expected to increase nearly 35% by the end of 2030 without harming biodiversity, soil and water resources. Ethanol can be produced from appreciable amount of sugar or material that can be converted into sugar such as starch or cellulose. Industrial ethanol producing microorganisms which are capable of fermenting all of the sugar present in feed stock; attracted much attention in recent years with the recent advances in biotechnology. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) is naturally unable to ferment pentose; its capability for xylose utilization has successfully been improved by intensive research over the last decades. During the last fifteen years, research has been focused on finding these xylose-fermenting microorganisms. S. cerevisiae has an efficient anaerobic sugar metabolism, tolerates inhibitory industrial substrates better than other microorganisms and ferments hexoses abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydro lysates with high yield and productivity. Attempts have also been made to review the status of fermentation of forest, industrial residue, agriculture waste and municipal solid waste. The present efforts are expected to enhance world energy scenario and life on the planet.

  • Ligninolytic Enzymes for Application in Treatment of Effluent from Pulp and Paper Industries
    Authors: Lipin Dev Mundur Sahadevan, Chandra Shekhar Misra, and Thankamani V.

    Abstract : The growing concern over the pollution caused by the rapid industrialization has posed a serious problem forcing researchers around the world to seek alternative eco-friendly technologies. The situation has been met with suitable regulatory steps in the developed western countries where public awareness coupled with stringent government regulations have stimulated the paper and pulp industry to take on newer and greener technologies but the problem remains the same in the developing parts of the world. Despite the impact of the industry on the environment, the world of pulp and paper industry continues to expand at alarming rates and more and more paper mills are booming up in the newly industrialised countries. Available industrial waste treatment processes are expensive and pose a major threat to the environment. Therefore to meet the demand of paper at the same time reduce the hazardous impact of industrial effluent on environment, the search for a sustainable and inexpensive biological intervention is indispensable. The present review therefore aims to bring out a comprehensive analysis of available biological agents which can be employed for effluent treatment from various industries like pulp and paper industry and dye industries.


  • Selection of Breeding Resource Materials of Bombyx mori L. for the Development of Bivoltine Hybrids Suitable for West Bengal
    Authors: Suresh Kumar N., Saha A.K. and Bindroo B. B.

    Abstract : The bulk of silk produced in India is from Multivoltines which are of inferior quality. Therefore, it is highly pertinent to have more productive bivoltine silkworm breeds capable of producing quality silk. However, the hot climatic conditions of India is not conducive to rear productive bivoltines. It is a well established fact that the bivoltines are highly vulnerable to high temperature coupled with high and low humidity especially in the late instars. The hot climatic conditions of tropics prevailing particularly in summer are contributing to the poor performance of the bivoltine breeds and the most important aspect is that many quantitative characters such as viability and cocoon traits decline sharply when temperature is high. Therefore, it is highly pertinent to identify more number of bivotine breeds which can withstand adverse climatic conditions. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to select suitable bivoltine breeds to be used as breeding resource materials for the development of bivoltine silkworm hybrids suitable to West Bengal conditions of India.

  • Isolation and Screening of Cellulolytic Bacteria Inhabiting Different Environment and Optimization of Cellulase Production
    Authors: Shaikh N. M.,Patel A. A., Mehta S.A.2, Patel N.D.

    Abstract : The cellulase producing bacteria were isolated from various region including paper industry waste, municipal waste, sugarcane farm, garden, and wood furnishing region. Total 34 isolates were obtained by the primary screening technique from which 11 isolates were showing maximum cellulase activity. Potential isolates were obtained from wood furnishing region and paper industry waste. These 11 isolates were then evaluated by secondary screening for enzyme production. Among these 11 isolates CDB27 and CDB30 were selected as most efficient enzyme producers and their specific enzyme activity in the crude sample was found to be 6.0U/mg and 8.4 U/mg and of partially purified sample was found to be 6.97 U/mg and 9.3 U/mg respectively. Isolates were tentatively characterized on the basis of their cultural and morphological and biochemical characteristics, CDB27 and CDB30 were identified to be Pseudomonas spand Bacillus sp respectively. Further partial purification of the cellulase enzyme was carried out by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by dialysis. Optimization of different parameters was carried out for the production of cellulase by both efficient isolates. The maximum enzyme producing isolate CDB30 was used to check biodegradation properties at laboratory scale.

  • Assessment of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous status of Solid waste Generated at ETP of Bromine Plant for Its Potential Use
    Authors: Kiran D. Ladwani, Krishna D. Ladwani, Vivek S. Manik, D. S. Ramteke

    Abstract : Recently, environmental problems related to brominated flame retardants have become a matter of great concern. Bromine has been extracted from sea brine. The main problem related to bromine production was disposal of the sludge. The sludge generated in the process was analyzed for its constituents and it was found to contain Calcium sulfatewhich was nothing but crude gypsum. Gypsum is one of the non-hazardous compounds which can be used as a source of sulfate and as a source of silica. It can easily be use for construction and increasing height of bunds of evaporation of ponds. Because of easy availability of gypsum i.e. sludge which was generated from bromine plant, can be use as amendments for reclamation.

  • Composition and Characterization Study of Solid Waste from Aurangabad City
    Authors: Amul Late and M. B. Mule

    Abstract : With the progress of civilization and rapid industrial development the problem of increase in waste generation becomes more complex in urban areas. The composition and characteristics of solid waste vary from place to place; factors that influence the quantity and composition are the average income level, the sources, the population, social behavior, climate, industrial production and the market for waste materials. The present paper is an attempt to study the composition of municipal solid waste generated from representative residential area and characterization study of the waste collected from disposal site of Aurangabad city. The study was carried out during three year study period from January 2007 to December 2009. The results reveals that, the average degradable material present in solid waste collected from representative houses were.83.50 %. Whereas the average non - degradable material present in cumulative solid waste collected from selected houses were 16.50 %. However the physic-chemical parameters of the solid waste collected from disposal sites were found in moderate range.

  • The Water Quality of Devoll and Osum Rivers and Its Impact on the Agricultural Soils
    Authors: Magdalena Cara, Jordan Merkuri, Murtezan Ismaili, Miranda Huta, Bora Qesja

    Abstract : The Devoll River, one of the sources of Seman River, joins Osum River in the proximity of KuÇova. The above are both used for irrigation purposes. The studies performed (over a period of four years 2003-2006) were aimed at determining the water quality of the Devoll and Osum rivers together with their impact in agriculture. The maximal sodium values recorded in the Devoll and Osum rivers were 1 mg/L (2003) and 0.66 mg/L (2006) respectively. Magnesium levels ranged from 2.67 mg/L (2003) to 2.96 mg/L (2006) with a 4 year average of 2.79 for the Devoll river and 2.02 mg/L (2006) to 3.55 mg/L (2005) with a 4 year average value of 2.57 mg/L for the Osum river. The nutritious elements levels were generally low. The average value of N - NO3- recorded in the Devoll waters reached 2.02 mg/L, with a maximal value of 5.88 mg/L (2006). The average value of N - NH4+ was calculated to be 1.12 mg/L, while the maximal value reached 2.1 mg/L (2006). PO43- and K+ had a maximal value of 0.1 mg/L (2005) and 11 mg/L (2006) respectively. The last value was 5.5 times bigger than the allowed one. For the Osum River the maximal values of N - NO3- and N - NH4+ were 9.02 mg/L (2006) and 3.22 mg/L (2006) respectively. The maximal values of PO43- and K+ were recorded to be 0.228 mg/L (2004) and 12 mg/L (2006). This maximal value is six times bigger than the allowed value. On average nutrient concentrations were higher in 2006 compared to previously recorded values. These concentration levels, with the exception of K+, were however within the FAO standard levels.

  • Assessment of Macro and Micronutrients in Soils from Panvel Area, Maharashtra, India
    Authors: Wagh G. S. and Sayyed, M. R. G.

    Abstract : Soil is a medium through which crops grow to perform the need of human for food and cloths. Agriculture refers to an art of hoist plants from the soils and is one of the most economical factors for human beings. In achieving better crop yield the farmers should be made aware about the status of soil constituents, chemistry of water available, nutrient supply to the crop, climatic conditions etc. Panvel is rice bowl of Kokan region of Maharashtra which is a staple food of majority of the people. Most of the rice producers are small farmers who lack resources and because of this the productivity of rice in this area is declining. This study has focused on the investigation of macro- and micronutrients in soils from Panvel area of Maharashtra. The soil samples collected from Poyange village near Panvel (Raigad district) in November 2006 - 2007. Ten representative locations were selected for the study and the analytical results were expected to be representative of the entire field. The different physical parameters and macro elements were analyzed in laboratory are pH, EC, Corg, P and K. The micro elements such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy while calcium and magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride were estimated volumetrically. The observed values of microelements found to be the order of the Zn < Cu

  • Use of Algae as a Bioindicator to Determine Water Quality of River Mula from Pune City, Maharashtra (India)
    Authors: Ayodhya D. Kshirsagar

    Abstract : The algal samples were collected monthly from selected three sampling stations of river Mula at Pune city from October 2007 to September 2008. Total of 162 species belong to 75 genera of algae were recorded from three sampling stations throughout the study period. In present study Palmer, (1969) Algal Genus Pollution Index and Algal Species Pollution Index were employed to study the water quality of river Mula. The total score of Algal Genus Pollution Index of station I, II and III were 19, 37 and 42 respectively. While total score from the Algal Species Pollution Index at station I- 9, station II - 31 while at station III- 34 recorded from river Mula, Pune. The total score of each station was greater than 20 indicating the confirmed high organic pollution. Considering all the water parameters and pollution index it was clearly shown that the sampling stations II and III were highly polluted than station I. The results of the present study revealed that the surface water quality was affected from domestic uses at the downstream of the river. Thus, algal communities were used as bioindicator of organic pollution of river Mula, Pune.

  • Ascorbic Protects Testicular Oxidative Stress and Spermatozoa Deformationsin Male Swiss Mice Exposedto Lead Acetate
    Authors: Dugesh Nandini Sharma

    Abstract : Lead is the known environmental contaminant adversely affecting the male reproductive system in human and experimental animals. The cytotoxic effects of lead on male reproductive system involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage in tissue. The higher quantities of ROS in testicular tissue detrimentally affected developing germ cells so as to produce verities of morphological abnormal sperm and finally reduced sperm count. The present study shows that lead exposure reduce testes weight and increase lipid peroxidation in the testes of mice in comparison to control. The sperm counts were significantly reduced in number. Importantly, lead treated mice show deformations in sperm morphology and testicular injuries. Supplementation of vitamin C daily to lead treated mice increase testes weight and partially protects testis from oxidative stress. In addition, vitamin C causes an increase in sperms count and significantly lowers the morphologically deformed sperms population. We conclude that taking daily consumption of vitamin C could be useful in lowering oxidative stress and sperm deformations in male mice exposed to lead.

  • Physicochemical Analysis of Soils from Eastern Part of Pune City
    Authors: Wagh G. S., Chavhan D. M., and Sayyed M. R. G.

    Abstract : Soil is a natural body of mineral and organic material differentiated into horizons, which differ among themselves as well as from underlying materials in their morphology, physical make-up, chemical composition and biological characteristics. In Pune city due to industrialization and other anthropogenic activity the soil from its eastern part has been polluted. The The sewage water in the Mula - Mutha River flows through the Manjari village and hence it is felt necessary to carry out the soil analysis to understand the pollution levels of the soils in the adjoining area. Since plants depend on the soils for their nutrients, water and minerals supply, the soil type is a major factor in determining what types of plants will grow in a any area. In the present study the analyses of soil samples collected from the sugarcane field of Manjari, Hadapsar , and Phursungi located in the SE part of the Pune city which is influenced by the solid waste disposal as well as industrial effluents. In the first place soils samples from 12 representative locations were collected for their analysis. Physical parameters like pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (%) and chemical parameters like phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, zinc and boron were anlyzed. From this study it has been revealed that there is excessive dose of phosphorous and potassium into the soil because most farmers are using excessive chemical fertilizers. Similarly Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentration has also been seen higher than the normal range and due to poorer drainage conditions of this area making soil alkaline. Thus it is concluded that variable concentrations of various parameters and irregular distributions of micronutrients may be attributed due to the added fertilizers during the crop formation.

  • Investigation on Substantial Health Effect of Fine-Particulate Air Pollution on Roadside Venders in India
    Authors: A. Mani Prakash , A.V.V.S. Swamy, and R. Hema Krishna

    Abstract : The present research on"Investigation on outdoor air pollution has substantial effect on health of road side venders in India"have been carried out at Lakdikapul station. The ambient air quality was measured in this traffic station and the monthly means were recorded. A 24 h cycle of hourly sampling was also carried out to assess the peak hour traffic concentrations of the ambient air quality parameters. The mean concentration of the TSPM recorded for the whole study period was 308.20 µg/m3. the mean concentration of the RSPM recorded for the whole study period was 112.01 µg/m3. The mean concentration of sulphur dioxide for the whole study period was 5.78 µg/m3. The concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen for the whole study period ranged between 23.70 and 42.60 µg/m3, with a monthly mean of 31.30 µg/m3. The mean concentration of CO2 for the whole study period was 3.10 mg/m3. At Lakdikapul, out of the five roadside vendors, 3 subject vendors have showed a decrease in the Forced Expiratory Volume in first second. The FEV1 ranged from -50.00 to -840.00 ml among these vendors. Two of the subject vendors have shown an improved FEV1 which ranged from 0 to 290.00 ml. Reducing exposure, especially from traffic, is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of pollution. The Air Quality Health Index is a tool that can help patients gauge risk before engaging in outdoor activity.

  • Transesterification of Pongamiapinnata Oil Using Base Catalysts- A Laboratory Scale Study
    Authors: Arun K. Vuppaladadiyam, Sangeetha C J, Sowmya V.

    Abstract : Pongamiapinnata is a deciduous, salt tolerant, drought resistant nitrogen fixing leguminous tree and their seeds are well known for extraction of non-edible oil. In the present study, the crude oil extracted from Pongamiapinnata seed was used to synthesize biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) by tranesterification with methanol in the presence of two different base catalysts viz. NaOH and KOH at a predetermined optimum temperature of 60?C, stirring speed of 300 rpm for 45 minutes. A percentage conversion of 68% and 73% respectively was achieved by NaOH and KOH catalyzed transesterification reaction. Further, fuel properties of the transesterified oil (biodiesel) obtained using the two catalysts were compared with crude Pongamia oil and a biodiesel blend (B20). Fuel properties taken into consideration were density, viscosity and flash point.

  • Comparative Study on Coagulation Process for Vellore Municipal Drinking Water Using Various Coagulants
    Authors: Arun K. Vuppaladadiyam, Sowmya V., PallaviDasgupta

    Abstract : The present study is focused to optimize the coagulation process for treatment of water sourced from the Palar River Basin and supplied to the Vellore Municipality. The research was progressed to evaluate the water treatment efficacy of natural coagulant i.e. moringaoleiferaseed, available locally in abundance, as well as conventional coagulants viz. alum and ferric chloride. Primly the basic operational parameters- pH and coagulant dosages were optimized. Further the treatment efficiency was evaluated on the basis of turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), organic content in terms of UV absorbance at 254 nm and microbial contamination (MPN for total coliform) for all three coagulants. Best removal efficiency was achieved near neutral pH with dosages of 45mg/L and 25mg/L for alum and ferric chloride, respectively.However, the Moringaoleiferacould not found effective in removing targeted contaminants.


  • New Locality Record of Deccan Banded Gecko Geckoella deccanensis (GÜNTHER, 1864) from Saputara Hills, Dang district, Gujarat, India
    Authors: Nitin Walmiki, Siddhesh Karangutkar, Bhaskar Yengal, Rishab Pillai1, Asif Khan, Vishal Wagh and Bhargav Parmar

    Abstract : Geckoella are terrestrial geckos with short toes that are endemic to (Western ghats) peninsular India and SriLanka. Genus Geckoella is represented with five species from India, Geckoella collegalensis, Geckoella albofasciatus, Geckoella deccanensis, Geckoella jeyporensis, Geckoella nebulosa. GÜnther (1864) described Gymnodactylus(Geckoella) deccanensis on the basis of a single specimen collected "in the Deccan". Dang forest range which forms the Northern most part of Western Ghats remains largely unexplored. This is the first time that the specimen (Geckoella deccanensis) is seen in Saputara Hill Range, Dang forest district, Gujarat. The occurrence of this species in Dang region confirms new locality record in Gujarat State and range extension of Geckoella deccanensis to further north in Western Ghats.

  • Occurrence of Poecilotheria Metallica Pocock, 1899 from Seshachalam Hills, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Authors: M.Bubesh Guptha, P.V. Chalapathi Rao and N. V. Sivaram Prasad

    Abstract : The genus Poecilotheria is known to occur only in India and Sri Lanka. The genus is represented by 8 species in India and 7 in Sri Lanka. Since August 2011 onwards, we are carrying out a detailed biodiversity inventory of the Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve in Chittoor and Kadapa districts, Andhra Pradesh. During one of our biodiversity surveys we sighted a dead specimen of Theraphosid spider in Kapilatheertham, forest complex (13°34'N; 79°21' E) of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve on 29th January 2013. Poecilotheria metallica is ranked by the IUCN as Critically Endangered. Further research with reference to ecology, threats and conservation of biodiversity in the area is in progress. So far many rare species recorded in this area, the present record reveal that the area is very rich in biodiversity and there is an urgent need to adapt conservation policies.