Abstract : Climate change is the greatest global threat and long-term challenge, as it can significantly cause damage to water resources, land resources, ecosystem, food security and health. Current projections of climate change constitute a further increase in average global surface temperature, increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and changes in precipitation as well as altered disturbance regimes. A change of 1.8-4°C by 2090-2099 relative to that of 1980-1999 has been projected by IPCC AR4. Developing countries are going to bear the brunt of climate change and suffer most from its negative impacts. Mitigation measures in the forestry sectors are generating much interest as a potential means of adaptation to climate change and also as a source for additional income to rural population. Forest ecosystems are one of the most efficient systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, capturing carbon in soil and biomass, and reducing the vulnerability of people and ecosystems to the detrimental impacts of climate change. Managing the loss of global forest should, therefore be incorporated into the framework for stabilizing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Forest management strategies can prove to be promising tools to achieve this stabilization with social, economic and environmental goals. For forests, to fully achieve their potential to address climate change, their governance must be improved as forestry projects can provide low cost mitigation strategies for climate change as well as adequate standards of living by improved food security, reduced poverty and increased sources of income.
Abstract : Moringa oleifera belongs to the family Moringaceae which is a single genus family of shrubs and trees cultivated across the whole of the tropical belt and used for a variety of purposes. Each tree can produce approximately 15000-25000 seeds and 400-1000 pod /year the average of weight of non shelled ced is 0.3 gm (300 mg). Many researchers have reported on the various uses of Moringa oleifera seeds as coagulant and coagulant aid in the last 20 years. Moringa oleifera coagulant has been found to have high coagulation activity only for high turbidity water. Extracts of seeds from the Moringa oleifera tree have been found to be one of the most effective clarifiers. The sludge left over from the water after treatment can also be used as a bio-fertilizer/bio-compost which has been shown to increase yields of other staple food crops. Moringa leaves can also be used very effectively as an animal feed. Its seeds yield 38-40% edible oil known as Ben Oil. In traditional medicines, it is used to treat a wide variety of ailments like headaches, worms, diarrhoea, stomach ulcers, skin conditions, anemia, infections, fevers, urinary problems, liver and spleen problems, arthritis and rheumatism.
Abstract : Anaerobic digestion is the most promising alternative to disposal this kind of waste, due to high energy recovery. The main objective of anaerobic digestion is the degradation and destruction of organic substances, with consequent reduction of the odorous emissions and pathogens. This conversion is catalyzed by a large of bacteria that operate in synergy, catalyzing different chemical reactions, hence the metabolic pathways involved in the anaerobic degradation are quite complex. Anaerobic digestion process follows four major steps: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of the overall process degradation. In anaerobic digestion, co-digestion is the term used to describe the combined treatment of several wastes with complementary characteristics, being one of the main advantages of the anaerobic technology. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. A great option for improving yields of anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is the co-digestion of multiple substrates. If co-substrates are used in anaerobic digestion system it improves the biogas yields due to positives synergisms established in the digestion medium and the supply of missing nutrients. Recent research on this topic is reviewed in the current paper. Special attention is paid to anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste, crop and crop residues, industrial sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as municipal sewage sludge.
Abstract : In order to understand trophic status of lake Anchar, seasonal pattern of zooplankton, chlorophyll-a and nutrients level in water column was examined from June 2010 to May 2011. Average of all stations taken together have shown a bimodal peak, bigger peak was observed in spring months and the other smaller one was observed in summer months in Anchar lake. The sequence of dominant species of zooplankton was Rotifera > Cladocera > Protozoa >Copepoda> Ostracoda in this lake. Correlation between zooplankton species and nutrients level was established. The Chlorophyll- a as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass peaks in colder periods. The ammonical-nitrogen ranged between 210.3 to 499.3 µg/l with mean of 336.3±21.60 µg/l. On the basis of nutrients and chlorophyll-a dynamics, the lake varied from mesotrophic to eutrophic in different seasons.
Abstract : The study was conducted to determine the seasonal changes of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in urban lentic water bodies (ponds) of Lucknow city. Owing to the unplanned development and urbanization, the ponds of this city are struggling for their existence. In spite of the global alarm for restoration of the water bodies, the ponds in the city are facing neglectance. For the study period four pond water bodies were selected. The study concludes that the water quality of ponds of Lucknow city is polluted as some of the results are above permissible limits. The city sewage discharge, agriculture and urban runoff and continuous dumping of waste materials especially sanitary waste are affecting the water quality of these urban water bodies. The toxicological implications of this finding in relation to aquatic ecosystem and human health are discussed. There is considerable need for better understanding of these small impoundments so that they can be managed effectively.
Abstract : The study area (8° 43' - 8° 51' N latitude and 78° 5' - 78° 10' E longitude) falls in the east coastal belt, west of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India. Land use and Land cover is an important parameter for developmental planning. In the present study an attempt has been made to generate the land use and land cover map from Satellite (IRS) 1C, linear image self-scanning (LISS) III of geocoded with UTM projection, sheroid and datum WGS-84, Zone North 44 generated from the total bands 4 on a 1:50,000 scales, was used unsupervised classification and topographical maps, and enhanced for better interpretation. A process of integrating remote sensing techniques and field data to accurately map landuse and land cover of the study area catchment is described. Major problem with the study area can be identifies as are (i) Rapid Growth of Population and (ii) Unplanned growth of the city both horizontally in all direction and vertically also. Field observation shows the current status and issues of coastal environmental problems. Finally, a maximum likelihood classifier was applied to classify the satellite images. Six major landuse classes were identified and mapped for the study area. These are: Cultivated land, Salt pans, Barren land, Shrubs and Water bodies. The study observed that cultivated land is dominant in Tuticorin and its surroundings followed by salt pans. The study recommends the use of satellite imageries for future environmental monitoring studies.
Abstract : Need for novel, safe and more efficient antibiotics is a key challenge to the pharmaceutical industry today. The ever increasing knowledge in the area of pathogen`s drug resistance has evoked the discovery of new antibiotics by the screening of microbes. Last few decades has witnessed the production of novel antibiotics from different microorganisms. At present, aerobic Actinomycetes have attracted considerable attention of bacteriologist, geneticist and ecologist because of the production of novel antibiotics. In this research we evaluate the potential of antibiotic production and characterize HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) analysis pattern of Streptomyces from various semi-arid locations of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Regarding this, five soil samples were collected randomly from three different green cover areas of Jaipur. Then, following the extraction of secondary metabolite, the HPLC analysis was carried out for characterization of various extracts. Considering the coordinate analysis of HPLC pattern, isolate A4 was found to be a potential producer of an antibiotic 'Monensin'. The results highlight the importance of Streptomyces isolates in antibiotic and antifungal production. HPLC confirmed the production when compared with standards.
Abstract : Freshwater prawn culture has attracted more attention in the recent years due to its export potential and increasing demand as luxury protein. India is the second largest contributor of freshwater prawns to the world market. Freshwater prawn culture has undergone a phenomenal growth in the past two decades. Many species are of regional or local fishery important however only half a dozen species of genus Macrobrachium spp. are of major economic value in India. The river basins of Tamil Nadu contains some species of freshwater prawn. The prawn fishery of the river Kodayar in Tamil Nadu, India indicates that there are some major commercial species which support local fisheries. Kodayar river basin lies at the southernmost tip of Indian peninsula. This is a small basin having an area of 1533 Sq. Km. with hilly area of 607 Sq. Km. which is more than one third of basin area. Kodayar river has two major tributaries in the upper reaches of its starting point. There are four stations fixed in Kodayar river basin for prawn collection. Temperature and rainfall play an important role in the breeding season of freshwater prawns. The basin rainfall highly recorded is 512.2mm during the north-east monsoon in October 2008. The average minimum and maximum temperature is found to be 23.36°C and 33.50°C respectively. The availability of prawns dependant in only monsoon periods and post monsoon periods. Totally 9 Macrobrachium species were collected in this river basin. The present paper deals with the distribution and the seasonal availability of the freshwater prawns for establishing culture farms in Kodayar river basin.
Abstract : The study is to focus on ambient quality of air in Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India and its health effect on people. Hosur is a municipal town in Krishnagiri district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The model which was considered to be the concentration of chemicals in the air of the work environment and possible negative health effects to people. The microclimate is under control except during very hot climate in summer. The chemicals are under control in coir producing, automobile and food industries. The chemicals are often over the limit in brick, alloy casting, granite industries and in some of the premises of pharmaceutical industries. According to work results, PM10 concentration varies from 45-127 ?g/m3 where PM2.5 concentration varies from 24-78 ?g/m3 and these are the highly polluting particles in work environment.
Abstract : Supply Chain Management has become essential component of corporate management strategy. The technique may be applied to collection, segregation, processing and disposal of organic waste in a city. Present paper attempts to understand the current way of disposing organic waste in area of Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and the possibility to apply the technique of Supply Chain Management for the same task, by using stake holder model. Technologically stake holders bring about new communication, coordination and encapsulation frame works aimed in providing value to users. Researcher is interested in applying stake holder's technologies for designing and controlling the dynamic behaviour of supply chain.
Abstract : Experimental effects of post-treated effluent from the outlet of anaerobic treatment plant (treated effluent), discharged from a distillery unit were studied in Pisum sativum. The physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent indicate that it is alkaline and rich in chlorides and total dissolved solids (TDS). Effluent colour is dark brown and has a pungent smell. Distillery effluent did not show any inhibitory effect on seed germination, vigor index, root length, shoot length and dry weight at a lower concentration (25%).
Abstract : A detailed limnological study of the River Jhelum, Kashmir was conducted during February 2011 to July 2011. Six study sites were selected for the collection of samples. The physico-chemical parameters of water and population density of three phyla viz, Arthropoda, Annelida and Mollusca were determined. The ionic composition of water of the River varied in close relationship with the catchment pattern of the concerned water body. The River Jhelum receiving all sorts of allochthonus material from the catchment had the highest conductivity. The water of the River was well buffered with pH > 7. A total of 21 taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded from the system. Arthropoda was most dominant group constituting 54.7%, followed by Annelida 28.9% and Mollusca contributed 16.4% of total macrozoobenthos . The hard and stony bottomed sites were dominated by insects belonging to orders Ephemeroptera, Tricoptera and Diptera. Significant changes in macrozoobenthic communities were primarily due to changes in water quality. As elsewhere, macrozoobenthic communities proved to be good indicators of water quality and should be used as bioindicators in long-term monitoring of this river.
Abstract : Bleached cotton fabric was dyed with natural dyes obtained from the stem of Achrassapota and flower of Spathodeacampanulata. The colour fastness properties and colour strength of dyed cotton fabric were determined and compared. From the comparative study of fastness properties and colour strength of the dyed cotton samples, Spathodeacampanulata in simultaneous mordanting method with 3% mordant combination gives better results as compared to the natural dye obtained from stem of Achrassapota.
Abstract : Soil morphological features such as low chroma (2 or less) soil colors are used as indicators of the seasonal high water table (SHWT) for onsite wastewater system (OWS) design in North Carolina and many other states. OWS drainfield trenches are installed at least 30 cm above the low chroma colors to ensure aerobic conditions for wastewater treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of low chroma soil colors in predicting the depth of the SHWT for some common soil series in Pitt County, North Carolina. Monitoring wells with automated water level loggers were installed at 7 locations and programmed to record water levels every 0.5 hours during the typical wet season from December 2011 to May 2012. Soil profiles were described, including the depth to low chroma colors, during the installation of the monitoring wells. An automated rain gauge was used to record hourly precipitation. Rainfall and well hydrograph data were used with the weighted rainfall index interpretation method to determine the depth to SHWT. The depth to SHWT was compared to the depth of low chroma colors to assess accuracy. The depths to SHWT were on average 9 ± 26 cm greater than low chroma color depths. However, for 3 of 7 sites, the SHWT was closer to the surface than the low chroma colors. Also, the low chroma soil colors and SHWT depths varied by an absolute value of 20 ± 16 cm. The use of low chroma soil colors for OWS design in some soils may result in less than 30 cm of separation to the actual SHWT, possibly reducing OWS treatment efficiency.
Abstract : The soil bacteria Rhizobium species in association with leguminous plants play vital role in agriculture. The amount of nitrogen (N) supplied by fixation depends on the ability of the inoculant rhizobia to fix nitrogen and also on the ability of the plant to provide energy to the rhizobia in the nodules. Many factors that influence either the rhizobia directly or the ability of the plant to send energy to the nodules have a negative impact on nitrogen fixation and ultimately, crop yield. Application of pesticides both in crop and soil is known to affect plant growth and microbial activity. Attempt was made to isolate Rhizobia from the roots of wild legumes and studying their nodulation property in presence of most commonly used herbicides. Three herbicides namely 2,4 D amine salt, Round Up & Atrazine were used for this experiment. We found as the herbicide conc. is increased from below MIC,MIC level and Above MIC level, the shoot length of plants, dry wt. of plant shoot, total root nodule number of plants and dry wt. of nodules was decreased. There was no development of nodules on side root system of plants and the decreased vigor in plants was observed.
Abstract : For the evaluation of tolerant capacity of the plant species to air pollution, four physiological and bio-chemical parameters namely leaf Relative Water Content, Ascorbic acid, leaf Chlorophyll content and leaf extract pH were used. By computing these parameters together in a formulation, it signifies the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. In the present study, sixteen plant species were selected which are commonly growing in different areas like residential areas, traffic areas, industrial areas and peri-urban areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. On the basis of tolerance index value, the plant species were characterized into sensitive, intermediately tolerant, moderately tolerant and tolerant plant species. Delonix regia Hook., Peltophorum pterocarpum DC., Alestonia scholaris L., Ficus religiosa L., Samania saman Jacq. and Azardirachta indica A. Juss. expressed high APTI values and these are suitable sinks to mitigate the air pollution. Millingtonia hortensis L.f., Clerodendrum paniculatum L., Terminalia arjuna Roxb., Pongamia pinnata L., Polyalthia longifonia Sonn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertner. showed intermediate tolerance capacity and the other four plant species Syzygium cumin L.i, Terminalia catappa L., Swietenia mahagoni L. and Saraca indica L. acts as bio-indicators of air pollution stress as these are sensitive to the air pollution.
Abstract : Anchar Lake was studied for a period of one year from June 2010 to May 2011 for regular physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton community structure. The study was designed to estimate zooplankton abundance qualitatively and quantitatively. Collections were taken on monthly basis. Biodiversity of zooplankton has been calculated using Shannon- Weiner index. The zooplankton community was composed of 08 species of Rotifera, 06 species of Protozoa, 07 species of Cladocera, 02 species of Copepoda and 01 species of Ostracoda. Numerically Crustacea was the dominant Class throughout the study period. Although 24 species have been identified at various stations in the Anchar lake but Centropyxis aculeata, Keratella cochlearis, K. Valga, Alona affinis, Daphnia magna, Chydorous sphaericus, Macrothrix rosea and Cyclops bicuspidatus are common species at all stations. The abundance of zooplankton in the lake follows a sequence as: Rotifera > Cladocera > Protozoa > Copepoda > Ostracoda. Correlation between various physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton density was calculated according to Karl- Pearson's formula. Some of the changes in zooplankton community structure was found associated with seasonal changes in temperature and nutrient content of water.
Abstract : Plant toxicity bioassays through fast germinating agricultural crops can indicate the phytoremediation potential, effects on growth and survival and also assess extent of pollution. In the present study, the phytotoxic effect of diesel fuel contamination was studies on four agricultural crops namely Zea mays, Vigna radiata, Sorghum vulgare and Pennisetum glaucum at four levels of contamination. All the test plant species tolerated diesel fuel contamination at 2.5 - 5% levels and the total percent seed germination was between 43.7 to 86.7%. But fourth treatment level (7.5% diesel) significantly reduced the germination in Zea mays (74% decrease) followed by Pennisetum glaucum (67% decrease). Diesel fuel contamination also caused a reduction in the length of the radicle of the four crop plants studied. At 5% level of contamination, the longest radicle (1.92 cm) was recorded in Vigna radiata followed by Zea mays (1.36 cm). Also at 10% level of diesel contamination these two test species showed more radicle growth than Sorghum vulgare and Pennisetum glaucum. There was a reduction of radicle growth of all the species in subsequent treatment levels. Almost same trend was observed in plumule growth of all four species. Phytotoxicity bioassays results revealed that Zea mays and Vigna radiata species exhibited better growth and germination even at high concentration of diesel as compared to Sorghum vulgare and Pennisetum glaucum. Hence, these two species have higher potential for phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soils.
Abstract : The aim of the present work is to study the antibiotic resistance, plasmid and RAPD profiles of the multidrug resistant (MDR) Coliform bacteria isolated from raw and treated sewage of Ghaziabad city, India. The MDR bacterial population in the raw and treated sewage constituted 7.5% and 19.1% of the total Coliform bacteria respectively. Five MDR Coliform bacteria (2 from raw and 3 from treated sewage) were isolated and identified as Enterobacter spp. by morphological and biochemical tests. These MDR strains were resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics including amikacin. Plasmid isolation studies showed that all MDR strains harboured a single plasmid of approximately 54.4 kb size. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of genomic DNA produced three RAPD profiles and showed variation between the raw and treated sewage isolates. Further, MDR strain R1 that was resistant to all 16 antibiotics tested showed plasmid-mediated resistance which was confirmed by plasmid curing study.
Abstract : Transition metal ions in industrial effluent discharge are of great threat to the environment. Several conventional treatment technologies viz., ion exchange, membrane separation, ultra-filtration, ion flotation, electro-coagulation, electrodialysis, sedimentation and reverse osmosis have been employed. However these methods involve high operating cost and produce large volume of toxic chemical sludge. In this context, biosorption process could be helpful and is emerging as a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include high efficiency, minimization of chemical sludge, low cost in regeneration of biosorbents and possibility of metal recovery. Agricultural waste materials being cellulosic are an excellent source for metal biosorption. They have different functional groups viz. hydroxyl, carboxyl, phenolic, amino, acetamido etc. having affinity for metal ions to form chelates and metal complexes. The mechanism of biosorption process includes chemisorption, complexation, diffusion, ion exchange, micro precipitation and surface adsorption. The aim of this review article is to provide the information on biosorption as a possible alternative to other conventional technologies and to highlight the chemical composition of agricultural waste material along with adsorption models and mechanism for metal biosorption.
Abstract : Shimla city depends mainly on surface water, available in the form of springs, streams and piped rivulets to fulfill its water demand. With rapid development of the city along with the ever increasing tourist inflow, there is a change in the trend of urbanization, which is highly water intensive. Earlier, the water supply system was meant to support a small population, but the population has now increased many folds. The city faces water shortage in every summer leading to huge demand and supply gap. The sources of water are located quite far from the city and mainly tapped from five main sources namely, Dhalli catchment area, Cherot Nallah, Chair Nallah, Nauti Khad (Gumma) and Ashwani Khad. In the face of changing climate, rainwater harvesting (RWH) could be seen as a promising solution to deal with the urban water demand. However, in Shimla city, roof top harvesting is the best way to collect rainwater and then storing it into the reservoirs (either overhead or underground) for further use. From the present study it has been observed that, the city is suitable for rainwater harvesting as it has the required potential for it and receives a good amount of rainfall during rainy season (from June-September), which constitutes almost 70% of the total rainfall in the region. Therefore, RWH can be a viable option to preserve water for the scarce period in the city. It is also necessary now, to educate people and make them aware about the potential and benefits of rainwater harvesting in times of acute scarcity.
Abstract : The antifungal activity of the crude extract of the leaves and whole plant of Bacopa monnieri in total of eight solvents (or their mixtures) were screened against three main fungal pathogens responsible for the skin infections. Zone of Inhibition as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration was recorded for the most potent extract. Methanol extract was found to be the most potent extract for all the pathogens under study The major zone of inhibition was recorded for the methanol extract of whole plant against A. niger as well as M.furfur 16mm and 15mm for C. albicans with the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranging from 300mg/ml and 400mg/ml for C. albicans and that for A. niger and M. furfur was recorded as 200mg/ml respectively. The GC MS analysis confirms the presence of the various phytochemicals contributing for the antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of Bacopa monnieri found to be promising against fungal pathogens also reveals the potential usefulness of the B. monnerii plant in the treatment of skin infections.
Abstract : Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries. It is also one of the largest employing labor forces. Tourism industry has major role in development process. Nowadays, India is having greater scope in tourism industry. This study is aimed to introduce exact situation and importance of many wonderful, useful distinctive places in Parner tahsil and emphasized the various geographical and religious aspects of developmental issues of the area. Tourism in the tahsil can be well developed in Parner tahsil with proper planning and well execution. There is huge scope to obtain wind energy in this area which will uplift the economic status of the people. The erosion of Dhokeshwar caves is taking place due to rain, wind, temperature. Special efforts should be taken by state archaeology department to save the cultural heritage of Parner tahsil. Basic infarstrucre like water, roads, fencing and guest house is essential as near about 4 to 5 lacks people visit to the korthan khandoba temple. The study revealed that tourism in Parner tahsil can be well developed with sustainable plan if proper execution is done.
Abstract : Scientific literature available on Satpura Tiger Reserve shows that extensive study has been conducted on mammals and birds but there is a lack of information on the herpetofaunal diversity. Fauna of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Editor - director (2008) is the sole published record where eight snakes' species were reported from study area. In present survey, we have reported two new locality records of Coelagnathus helena monticollaris (Kumbhar et al., 2011) and Psammophis longifrons. Satpura Tiger Reserve (STR), (220 19' - 220 30'N and 770 56' - 780 20'E) is a 1427.87 km2 protected area located in the Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh state in Central India.
Abstract : The ability of arboreal forms to leap from great heights without harm is valuable adaptation to life high above the ground surface (Koli et al., 2011). Tree squirrel commonly occupy nests to avoid predators and rear young (Setoguchi, 1991) and prefer upper canopy level of forest as it arboreal nature. In Indian jungles Ratufa indica is a major arboreal mammal species and very few literatures available on its behavioral aspects. Datta (1999) reported day time use of dray and predation attempts on Ratufa indica by crested hawk-eagle. Indian giant squirrel have tendency to build dray in dense forest with closed canopies, sites were along the annual river or area where sufficient moisture in summer (Kanoje, 2008). In present study we reported observation on dray building behavior and jumping success of Indian giant squirrel.