Abstract : Environmental engineering is undergoing remarkable and awesome challenges. The vision and purpose in writing this review is challenging and groundbreaking. Wastewater and effluent treatment has undergone innovative changes over the years. Traditional wastewater treatment has yielded to modern and path-breaking procedures which are more efficient and effective. The world of difficulties and unknown has opened new avenues and paths to highly feasible effluent treatment procedures. So the vigorous importance of advanced oxidation procedures. Our review will delineate the increasing importance of various advanced oxidation processes including ozonation of textile wastewater. It will open up wide avenues of visionary importance's. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) , which involve and includes the in-situ generation of highly potent chemical oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical , have emerged as an important avenue of technologies to accelerate the non-selective oxidation and thus the destruction of a wide range of non-degradable organic contaminants in wastewater which cannot be eliminated biologically. Our review will delineate the difficulties and intricacies of advanced oxidation processes of wastewater particularly textile industry wastewater. Actually, recently, an increasing application of various AOP's for textile wastewater has been observed in contrast to traditional treatment methods. So our urge to investigate this domain of knowledge. A holistic view of the advanced oxidation processes is deliberated and delivered with scientific rigour.
Abstract : Although there is great investment in natural dyes, there are few scientific data on the traditional knowledge of their biological activities by the African people. This study investigates the nutraceutical and medicinal uses of traditional dyeing plants in the region of Mouhoun in Burkina Faso. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in this region with plant dyers and traditional healers of this locality. The survey covered the techniques of dye extraction by the dyers, the modes of application, the diseases treated, the parts of the plants used and the modes of administration. Eighty-nine (89) dyers and/or traditional healers, including 44 women, were interviewed. A set of dye plants belonging to 12 plant families were identified. The ethnobotanical data obtained were examined in relation to the phytochemical and pharmacological data available in the literature.
Abstract : In this study, the adsorption of two basic dyes, namely, Crystal Violet (CV) and Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solution by phragmite australis treated with 40% H3PO4 was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, contact time, pH and carbon dose. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The equilibrium experimental data were analyzed by using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Harkin - Jura isotherms. The kinetic data obtained was analyzed using a pseudo - first order, pseudo - second order and intra - particle diffusion equations. Dye adsorption was best described by the Langmuir model and with the pseudo - second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔGº), enthalpy (ΔHº), and entropy changes (ΔSº) were evaluated. The surface morphology of modified phragmite australis was characterized by FT - IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface area and Boehm titrations.
Abstract : Hydroides elegans is a gregarious tube building polychaete which occurs in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Adults were found to have good tolerance in laboratory assays using. The effect of flucloxacillin on fertilization and early development was explained through three experiments. Flucloxacillin is a antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. In normal fertilization the percentage of successful development at FM stage was 100±0.00 upto larval release stage was 80.11±0.68. In Expt. I higher concentration 50% of the embryos showed abnormal development and deformities. Expt. II in lower concentrations upto 800ppm the embryo showed high deformities. Expt. III, in 400ppm nearly 60% of embryos showed abnormal development in Blastula stage. Finally, more than 100ppm concentrations did not reach the release stage. The percentage of successful development was decreased in Expt. I to Expt. III. The present paper deals with the toxic effects of flucloxacillin on fertilization and early development of H. elegans and the percentage of successful development of embryos were studied.
Abstract : Halophilic bacteria live in extreme salt conditions and can produce enzymes which are highly stable. A study was conducted to isolate lipolytic enzyme producing halophilic bacteria from salted fish. As lipolytic enzymes from halophiles can tolerate extreme salt conditions, it is highly stable and can tolerate harsh industrial conditions and thus has got potential biotechnological applications. In the present work 17 halophilic isolates were obtained from salted fish samples on Seghals Gibbons Complex (SGC) medium. The lipolytic activity of the strains was tested by Tween hydrolysis on SGC medium containing 1% Tween 80 or Tween 40. A strain SH1 which showed the highest relative enzyme activity was identified by 16 S rDNA sequencing as a novel strain belonging to the class Gamma proteobacteria. The strain was found to grow in a salt range, 2 to 5 M and thus confirmed as an extreme halophile. It showed lipolytic activity at salt concentration in the range 2 to 4 M and pH range 6 to 11. Thus it forms a promising strain for the production of halophilic lipolytic enzymes and thus can have industrial applications.
Abstract : Today, scattering and dumping of solid wastes is one of the basic problems in rural areas of Iran. It is necessary to identify the quality and quantity of solid waste before making any decision about rural solid waste management. This study was an attempt to investigate the rate of per capita generation, density and physical composition of solid wastes in 10 villages of Babol township in north of Iran. In order to measure generation rate of solid wastes in selected villages, the rate of these materials was determined in 3 consecutive days of a week in the second month of each season. In determining of solid waste density and physical composition, the samples were mixed completely and provided in triplicate. Each sample has been transferred to a 0.5 m3 plastic container and its different components were measured by digital scale. Maximum and minimum generation rates per capita were 0.84±0.21 kg/day and 0.65±0.15 kg/ day respectively. Maximum and minimum densities were 431±36 kg/m3 and 407±21kg/m3 respectively. Mean weight percents of putrecible waste, plastics, paper, metal, glass, textiles and others were %76.9, %7.1, %7.4, %1.1, %0.7, %1.3 and %5.6 respectively. Considering composition of degradable materials (%76.9), composting is a suitable method for removal of rural solid wastes in north of Iran villages. According to noticeable amounts of recyclable materials (plastics, paper and metal), segregation and recycle programs of these components of solid wastes should be considered in these rural areas.
Abstract : In the present article, the potential of Eucalyptus cameldulensis charcoal for the biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions using fixed bed column operations was investigated. Eucalyptus cameldulensis charcoal was activated using 1.0N HCl. The different parameter investigated in this study include bed depth (16.0, 20.0 and 24.0 cm), flow rate (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0ml min-1) and initial metal ion concentration (100, 150 and 200mgL-1).The maximum percentage removal for Cr (VI) and Cu (II) were 66.32% and 57.69 % at 24.0 cm bed depth with 1.0 ml min-1 flow rate and 100 mgL-1 initial metal ion concentration. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was successfully applied to the column studies and the biosorption capacity (No) obtained for Cr (VI) and Cu (II) were 100.0 mg L-1 and 87.5 mg L-1respectively. The exhausted columns were regenerated using 0.5N NaOH after each biosorption cycle. Column studies demonstrate that charcoal prepared from Eucalyptus cameldulensis has significant capacity for the removal of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from aqueous solutions.
Abstract : Assembling different water quality parameters into one single number leads an easy interpretation of an index, thus providing an important tool for management and decision making purposes. Water Quality Index exhibits the overall water quality at a specific location and specific time based on several water quality parameters. The purpose of an index is to transform the complex water quality data into information that is easily understandable and useable by the general public. As a part of research work, eight important water viz., pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved solids, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium were used to evaluate WQI of River Godavari at Rajahmundry water quality monitoring station. In this paper, the seasonal variations of WQI during the study period (2009-2012) and future period (2012-2015) are discussed. The results revealed that the developed model performance was significant with MAE=4.97, RMSE=7.31 and MAPE=5.15% respectively. According to the classification criteria standards based on NSF WQI, the WQI values varied from 99.28 in June 2012 to 98.36 in May 2015; indicating the water is excellent to good quality. The water quality index followed a linear trend pattern the fluctuations in the dissolved oxygen levels affected the WQI.
Abstract : The special Location of Al-Hodiedah Governorate which is located at an area that links the Red sea and the seasonal monsoon affect marine ecosystem of the Al-Hodiedah coast. Five location at Al-Hodiedah sea shores were selected in order to study the availability of heavy metals and their concentrations in the surficial sediments (<60µm), The concentration of Ten leachable and total metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Assessment of anthropogenic pollution in sediment Contamination Factor (CF), Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. The concentration of cadmium is indicating very high contamination in all the sampling sites. The PLI value is indicates fast progressive deterioration of the estuarine quality of Al-Hodiedah Governorate in Yemen.
Abstract : The extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture sector poses a serious problem to human health, environment and nation economy. Here, the relationship between the extent of use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and signs and symptomsof illnesses due to exposure among the farmers from Satara tahsil was assessed. Twenty eight agricultural shops from study areawere surveyed to know the types and quantities of chemical and biological fertilizers and pesticides used up by the farmers.Sixty farmers from study area were interviewed with pretested interview questionnaire to know the signs and symptoms of illnesses related to agrochemical exposure. All interviewed farmers were found to use huge quantities of chemical fertilizers and pesticides than biological fertilizers and pesticides. The signs and symptoms of illness among study population due to chemical fertilizer and pesticide exposure were found to be itching eyes(61%),skin redness(47.6%),dizziness(42.9%),excessive sweating(40.5%),sore throat(26.2%), weakness(16.7%), shortness of breath(7.1%), nausea (4.8%) and stomach pain (4.8%).There is need to create awareness among the farmers to use personal protective measures while handling these chemicals and farmers should be encouraged to turn towards ecofriendly biofertilizers and biopesticides for sustainable agriculture.
Abstract : Dyestuff sector is one of the core chemical industries in India. Maharashtra and Gujarat account for 90% of dyestuff production in India due to the availability of raw materials and dominance of textile industry in these regions. During industrial processing up to 40 % of the used dyestuffs are released in to the process water. The untreated effluents released from the dyeing units cause a major threat to the environment. Direct discharge of dye effluents causes formation of toxic aromatic amines in receiving media. The majority of colour removal techniques work either by concentrating the colour into the sludge or by partial or complete breakdown of the coloured molecules. Although a variety of effective physical and chemical treatment methods are commercially available, most of them are either expensive, not adaptable to a wide range of dyes, or do not completely solve the problem of complete decolourization of dye containing industrial effluents. Biodegradation have been explored as a method of biological treatment of dye. Hence in a present study attempts were made to biologically treat dye industry wastewater by biomethanation. Anaerobic digestion of 25% dye industry wastewater was studied under various environmental conditions and observed that COD reduction of 88.88%.BOD reduction of 68.06% giving 73.57% colour removal. In addition, anaerobic treatment gave valuable fuel in the form of methane which adds to the revenue of the industry. The sludge obtained after anaerobic treatments posses good manurial value and hence adds to revenue of industry.
Abstract : In this study, daily UV radiation on ground surface was correlated with daily global radiation on horizontal surface over Chennai using linear least square method. For the study, Daily UV radiation data on a ground surface were taken for the period from August 2011 to December2011. Global radiation data used were computed using Regression equation with sunshine hours. Observed UV radiation during this period was compared with computed UV radiation using linear regression equation. They were in good agreement with each other.
Abstract : Study analyses hourly average of daily UV radiation measured at Chennai in relationship with solar indices by multi linear regression analysis and Artificial Neural Network to forecast performance parameter namely Mean Bias Error and Mean Average Percentage error (MAPE). Moreover, study compares predicted UV radiation against measured value. It is concluded that ANN model prediction or estimation is better than the multiple regression model.
Abstract : Vine snake belongs to the genera Oxybelis (New world vine snake), Thelotornis (African vine snake) and Ahaetulla (Asian vine snake). Ahaetulla is tropical Asian genus of colubrid snakes comprising eight species and distributed through India, Southeast Asia, Philippines and East Indies. Western Ghats in Maharastra is termed as Sahyadries and is one of the global bio-diversity hotspots (Myers et al, 2000). Northen western ghats extend across three states viz Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa. Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) was once a shooting reserve of the ruler Janjira during Mughal regime. PWLS is an unique representative of coastal protected area, as it is the only coastal protected area in Sahyadries range of Maharashtra. Survey was done from May 2010 to June 2011 on Herpetofauna of PWLS. During this study period we sighted Ahaetulla nasuta VAR isabellinus only four times. Whereas Ahaetulla nasuta is abundant and Ahaetulla pulverulanta is uncommon species in PWLS.