Abstract : A review of the literature on the mutagenicity of textile dye products is presented in this article. This review discusses genetic hazards associated with the production and use of textile dyes throughout the world. Mutagenicity of azo and non azo dyes has been considered due to extensive recent data on the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of this group of dyes. In addition, a section on Salmonella mutagenicity bioassay has been included. The data discussed mainly concerns the activities of these dyes in short-term tests for mutagenicity whilst reference only is made to animal carcinogenicity and non-specific toxicity. Environmental impact of these dyes has been assessed and an attempt has been made to evaluate the data with respect to correlation with tumour-inducing ability and to cause cancer.
Abstract : Three marine organisms, Mugil cephalus, Penaeus monodon and Perna viridis were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in 24-hrs static renewal acute toxicity test in the present study. Subsequently safe concentration and the ambient concentrations in the Ennore were estimated. The calculated 96-hour LC50 values showed the sensitivity of mullet juveniles to metals are in the order of Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn. Juveniles of P.viridis were highly susceptible to copper; 96 h LC50 value was very low and was tolerant to zinc. The order of sensitivity was Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn. Post larval stages of P.monodon exposed to heavy metals in acute toxicity test revealed vulnerability towards lead and tolerant to zinc. The order of sensitivity was Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn. Ambient concentrations in Ennore creek showed that the values were above the safe concentrations derived and the coastal standards. The heavy metal concentrations would have posed a great threat for the sustainability of juveniles in the Ennore estuary. Hence, there is an urgent need to implement stringent rules to prevent pollution of creek, so that the juveniles may grow, reproduce, and thrive in their waters contributing a sustainable ecosystem for the future.
Abstract : Domestic sewage treated in municipal sewage treatment plants is only analyzed for its physicochemical properties correction prior to its discharge but as domestic sewage is proved to contain genotoxicity also, it is suggested that the discharge should also be checked for genotoxicity. Many microbial genotoxicity tests are employed for genotoxicity testing. These tests are simple, quick and employ a variety of auxotrophic bacterial strain battery detecting frame shift, point mutation, base pair substitution causing mutagens presence in the sample. Among them various Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA97a, TA97b, Ta102 , E.Coli. WP2 etc. are very commonly used which requires repetition of experimentation and makes it tedious. Actual speed of experimentation in detection of mutagens is also lost. In the present study four most commonly used strains of auxotrophic bacterium viz. Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, Ta102 and E.Coli. WP2 strain was taken into consideration and were analyzed that in domestic sewage which types of mutagens are present and which strain among these four most commonly used strains is most sensitive and quick in detection of these mutagens. The results of the study showed that domestic sewage and municipal waste water consists of mutagens causing frame shift mutations and base pair substitutions and the auxotrophic bacterial strain which is most effective among the four strain is Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 102 which along with the frame shift mutation detecting strain TA98 can be used for quick assessment of genotoxicity of domestic waste prior to its discharge.
Abstract : In the recent past, the pollution resulting from the production and use of synthetic colorants, has received increased worldwide awareness. This has led to a significant revival of interest in natural colorants in the last few years. There is a realization amongst consumers and in textile industry for a need to re-invent natural dyes to impart color to textiles. This paper concerns with extraction of dyes from a plant, 'Sesbania aculeata', commonly known as Dhaincha. This plant belongs to the family of Fabaceae, which is commonly known as the legume family. It is a crop generally cultivated as green manure for increasing the nutritive value of the soil. This plant has low maintenance and tending operation costs with high yields. A highly desirable aspect of this plant, in contrast to the other natural dyes based on vegetable and fruit sources is that, its usage in making the natural dye does not result in any wastage of an otherwise edible or a highly commercial product. In this paper, ethanolic extract of Sesbania aculeata was used to dye cotton fabric using five different mordants with three different mordanting techniques. Color measurements were carried out to evaluate the shades obtained. The dyed fabrics were subjected for analysis in terms of K/S and CIE L*a*b* values as well as their fastness properties.
Abstract : The colour fastness properties of the flowers of Erythrina suberosa dyed on wool were studied using combination of mordants such as lemon juice: copper sulphate, lemon juice: potassium dichromate, lemon juice: ferrous sulphate and lemon juice: stannous chloride in the ratio of 1:3, 1:2 and 3:1. Dyeing along with mordanting techniques which included pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post mordanting was carried out. Study about fastness tests of dyed clothes was undertaken. Large range of shades was obtained because of varying mordant ratios and combinations. The washing, rubbing, light and perspiration fastness of the dyed samples was also evaluated, giving fair to excellent fastness grades and this evaluation also useful for textile industries.
Abstract : The present study investigates the anthropogenic metal input in to the river system, the toxic metal contamination in the sediment of the river and evaluates the dissolution of metal from soil to surface water or leaching through soil profile. Nine sampling stations along the river channel and three in the industrial canals are chosen and a set of surface water and sediment samples from each station were collected. Samples are analyzed for Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, As and Zn by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The findings show that, toxic metals content among all the samples are distributed in a decreasing sequence of Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Cu>Cr>As>Pb>Cd. The content of the most toxic metals in wastewater and sediments of the industrial canals are much higher than that of river water and sediments. Moreover, most of the toxic metal contents are found to exceed the background concentration in all sediment samples. Higher geoaccumulation values are observed for Zn, Ni and Cu probably due to the anthropogenic metal supply with uncontrolled discharge of industrial effluents into the river. Further, higher enrichment factors are found for Zn, Ni and Cu suggesting also anthropogenic source of metals. Significant correlation is also observed among these, indicating the same source of occurrence. Partition coefficient, Kd values are found in the order: Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb and lower Kd values are found in the sediments near industrial area indicating much leaching or dissolution. Therefore, it can be concluded that sediments of the river close to industrial area is contaminated by toxic metals which enter into the food stuff and give rise to various health hazards of the inhabitants.
Abstract : Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. All people live downstream of water supplies. Hence, the quality of water depends on the maintenance of water supply network. During the lateral travel of water it may contaminated by various microorganisms. This polluted and contaminated water affects the consumer's health and cause various water borne diseases. Therefore, in present study, the level of faecal coliform in water distribution network of Jaipur is evaluated in 12 different areas of Jaipur city. Residual chlorine and faecal coliform bacteria was analyzed. Interestingly, it was found that residual chlorine was present in permissible limit in all areas, however, showing the presence of microbes and coliforms. Out of 12 sites selected, 8 sites were found to have coliform bacteria showing the possibility of contamination of water supply by sewage discharges which come in contact with supplied water due to leakage in pipes. In 4 areas, however microbial contamination by Gram positive bacteria was observed instead of coliforms. In these four areas water may be polluted during its flow off from polluted soil and area. It is possible that microbes may enter through damaged pipes. To provide good quality water to consumer, it should be protected from microbial contamination by maintaining the water supply network.
Abstract : In the present study, effects of lead toxicity on fertility of female Swiss mice have been investigated. Implantation sites, litter size, body weight of pups and histopathology of ovary were investigated. Lead toxicity was induced by lead acetate given orally for 3 months. The treatment of lead poisoning through chelating agents can remove essential elements, resulting in kidney damage. Oxidative damage associated with presence of lead has been illustrated as one possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity which suggests that antioxidant (vitamin C and E) might play a role in the treatment of lead induced infertility. The role of vitamins in treating/preventing chronic reproductive lead toxicity in animals is receiving wide attention. Therefore, along with above study, therapeutic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on lead induced reproductive toxicity have also investigated. In lead treated group, there was decline in fertility, less number of implantation sites, decreased in litter size, decreased in body weight of pups and damage in ovary was observed. With supplementation of ascorbic acid along with lead witch induced in fertility, implantations were visible in uterus but no litter was born. Ascorbic acid could not prevent ovary damage. In lead+ vitamin E and lead+ vitamin C+ vitamin E treated groups there was improved fertility outcomes, increase in number of implantation sites, body weight of pups were also increased and ovaries were protected. Only vitamin C and E treated groups were nearly similar to control.
Abstract : The purpose of this study was to characterize the vegetable production system for swamps zone in urban area. Investigations were made in 18 zones in Dschang city, for 295 producers. It revealed that, producers are in majority men (56%), youth (22%), married (80.8%), and are teenagers (52.9%). Almost all use pesticides, organic and mineral fertilizers. Untreated polluted river waters constitute the principal source for watering the vegetables. The most produced vegetables are: huckle berry, tomatoes, celery, green pepper, basil, parsley, african aubergine, cabbage, lettuce, green-beans, leeks and carrot. They have an income ranging from 30,000 FCFA (60 $US) to more than 500,000 FCFA per cropping cycle. The gross margin per hectare varies between 2,600,000 FCFA and 6,500,000 FCFA, depending on the type of crop. The vegetable production in swamps in Dschang is a considerable source of income for many families. However new farms are created by destruction of the raffia palms and trees, thereby increasing the farms with time. Also, access to farm land, high prices of the inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds), fluctuation of vegetables prices in the market, and the bad quality of water for watering constituted the principal constraints to the activity.
Abstract : Water pollution caused by the textile industry is mainly by the release of waste streams coming out from wet processing operations like scouring bleaching, dyeing and printing etc. Due to this chemical pollution, the normal functioning of cell is disturbed and this in turn may cause alteration in physiology and biochemical mechanisms of animals resulting in impairment of important functions like respiration, osmoregulation, reproduction and even mortality. In the present investigation, the concentration of selected heavy metals and physicochemical characteristics of the effluent samples were evaluated to ascertain the efficiency of industry's waste water treatment process. Conventional methods were employed for determination of physicochemical parameters while, heavy metals in the effluent samples were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained from the physicochemical analysis of all the samples of effluent indicated high temperatures, alkaline pH, and foul smell and were highly colored. The TSS values in all the samples and TDS values in some samples were also very high. All the samples except one sample have high microbial load which reflects in their high BOD values. The COD values of all the samples were very high indicating high degree of pollution. The results also showed elevated levels of inorganic metals. The concentration of heavy metals also has great variability. Thus textile effluent was a major source of water pollution which will affect the flora and fauna existing in such environments. This study anchors on the need for treatment textile effluent before they are discharged into the environment.
Abstract : Automobile transport has now become an inherent part of human life, and the negative aspects like air pollution are becoming more and more pronounced. Increased vehicular traffic is leading to deterioration of air quality in streets of Kolhapur city in recent years. It is very important to assess the impact of traffic related air pollution on human health, and to take administrative decisions for improving air quality. In present study, two street canyon models viz. STREET and STREET Box are applied to model the concentration of pollutants. The model results are based on traffic volumes, geometry of study area, and meteorological conditions prevailing in study area. Background values are obtained from National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station at Dabholkar Corner, Kolhapur. Hourly concentration of pollutants like SPM and SO2 are computed using the models and those values are compared against the observed values in the selected street to find out best fit model for conditions existing in Kolhapur. STREET Box model was found to fairly estimate concentration of pollutants while STREET model was found to underestimate concentrations. A more accurate method is required to estimate background concentrations.