Abstract : Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 220.127.116.11) are multicopper oxidases that are widely distributed among plants, insects, and fungi. They belong to a group of polyphenol oxidases containing copper atoms in the catalytic centre which are usually called multicopper oxidases. It utilizes molecular oxygen to oxidize various aromatic and non-aromatic compounds. They have been described in different genera of ascomycetes, some deuteromycetes, and mainly in basidiomycetes. The enzyme catalyze the one electron oxidation of a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates, including mono-di- and polyphenols, amino-phenols, methoxyphenols, aromatic amines, and ascorbate, with the concamitant four electron reduction of oxygen to water. Laccases are found in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Laccase is localized both intracellular and extracellular fraction. In addition to the general inhibitors a very wide range of compounds are known to inhibit laccase. Fungal laccases typically exhibit pH optima in the acidic pH range and stable at temperature between 30-50°C, and isoeletric points (pI) ranging between 3 to 7. Km ranges from 10s of mM for syringaldazine and ABTS to 100 s of mM for DMP and guaiacol. Their importance in the synthesis and biodegradation of lignin remains an intensively studied subject and the biotechnological aspects of these enzymes seems to be just beginning. This review helps to understand the properties of this important enzyme for efficient utilization for its biotechnological and environmental applications.
Abstract : Due to rapid increase in industrialization, exponential growth of internal combustion engines, continuous deteriorating environment have paved the way to make renewable energy resources more attractive. The most feasible way to meet this growing demand is by utilizing alternative fuels such as Jatropha which have been considered as a prospective feedstock for biodiesel production in a number of hot and humid climatic countries. It has approximately same combustion characteristics and heat value as diesel fuel and has proved better environmental friendliness as compared to diesel and gasoline. Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant perennial, growing well even in poor soil conditions. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and survives, producing seeds for 50 years containing oil up to 37%. During present study, efforts have been made to study the suitability of Jatropha plantation in Rajasthan with respect to its climate suitability, financial viability and possible employment. Study is also aimed to calculate the possible replacement of diesel fuel by Jatropha seed oil if suitable waste land of 0.66 M ha in six districts of Rajasthan state which are most suitable for Jatropha plantation is used. It has been concluded that around 20.53 Lac people can be given employment for Jatropha plantation under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) which aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days job.
Abstract : The effects of different fixed photoperiodic regimes on the rate of feeding and defecation in the epigeic oligochaete (Eudrilus eugeniae) has been investigated. The different photoperiods stipulated were Natural 12hr Light: 12hr Dark (natural LD 12:12), Reversal of 12hr Light: 12hr Dark ( reversal LD 12:12), 24hr Light source (L 24), 24hr Dark (D 24) and control set (natural rhythm) were experienced by E. eugeniae in the course of the study. The experiments were carried out during the ambient winter (26 degree C + 2 ) and all clitellate worms showed varied feeding and defecation activities. Worms fed actively only during night times under natural LD 12: 12. when exposed to reversal LD 12:12 revealed acclimatization to the changed conditions of day and night by the end of 2nd week and started feeding voraciously. Worms that were maintained in D 24 showed enhanced feeding rate with increased biomass over the worms that were maintained in natural LD 12:12 and natural rhythm (control set). ANOVA and ANCOVA tests applied revealed that the total darkness or diffused light without any disturbance influenced the feeding rate of worms that in turn showed higher production of defecation as vermicompost. The critical difference (C.D.) of ANOVA was 0.98(0.05%) and the difference for testing among treatments in ANCOVA was 781191.15(0.05). Resynchronization pattern were seen when changed to reversal LD 12:12 from natural LD 12:12. Observations revealed that worms were confused from day 1-4 when any changed photoperiodic devices were fixed other than their regular normal pattern of Light and Dark cycle and later got acclimatization into the induced photoperiodic cycles. The study apart from proving the exogenous factors on the photoperiodic effects also proven the importance of darkness to the worms in defecation that has importance in the conversion of given substrate at a faster pase.
Abstract : Analyzing surface water quality parameters and prediction of variation in future is a principal step in water quality management. Various techniques can be applied to analysis and prediction; among which, time series model including exponential smoothing and Box- Jenkins is one of the suitable tools. In this study, water quality data of two inlet branches and an outlet branch of water in Latian dam, located in North West of Tehran is analyzed according to the above-mentioned model. The trend of parameters quality change can be predicted from the developed models. The predicted values and observation data of the last six months based on one month ahead predictions have a good consistency. Hence, the technique may be applicable for the regions which enough information are not available for basins, and the prediction data may be applied for water quality management in the latian dam.
Abstract : The Pleistocene-Holocene sediments are well exposed along Dwarka-Okha section of Saurashtra, Gujarat, Western India. The sediments are represented by bio-clastic limestones, coral reef limestones and conglomerates. These sediments constitute the Chaya Formation which further includes the Okha shell Limestone Member and the Armada Reef Member. The sediments of the Okha shell limestone Member are represented by bioclastic limestones, off-white limestones and conglomerates while the sediments of the Armada Reef Member are represented by coral-reef limestones. The coral-algal reef section of the Armada Reef Member exposed in a well section at global co-ordinates N 22° 20' 46" and E 69° 0' 05" is examined in the present study. This section of 10 feet is divided into nine units from A to I based on rock type and coral- algal assemblage. The sequence consists of alternate coral framestone and algal framestone (Rhodoliths) from unit-A to unit-H and at top rudstone (unit-I). The observations made from unit A to Unit H suggests fluctuating sea level while unit-I represents very shallow environment and evidence of Rhodophycean macro-algal bloom. This algal bloom is probable cause for the collapse of this coral-algal reef system along with marine transgression.
Abstract : The synthetic dyes which are of wide commercial importance cause severe atmospheric and environmental pollution. Use of natural dye has increased several folds in the past few years due to ecofriendly approach of the people.The present investigation was carried out for dyeing with natural dye obtained from flowers of Tecoma stans belongs to bignoniaceae family, commonly knows as Ginger Thomas. The trumpet-shaped flowers are clustered at the branch tips. The individual flowers are broadly tubular, 2 inches (5 cm) long, and have 5 rounded lobes. The flowers are followed by 8 inch (20 cm) long, narrow, brown seed pods. In the present study, scoured cotton fabric was dyed with chemical and natural mordants . Dyeing was carried out by pre-mordanting, post mordanting and simultaneous mordanting. The dyed samples have shown good washing, light and rubbing fastness properties. The production cost of the Tecoma stans flower dye was estimated.
Abstract : The increasing heaps of fly ash generated from coal based thermal power plants become a concerning environmental issue. The fly ash is burned residue of coal which has alarming dimensions, open dumping of fly ash can creates environmental problems such as contamination of surface and groundwater resources by leaching process. During present the investigation the underground and surface water samples were collected from the surrounding areas of fly ash dumping site near Parli Thermal Power Station (PTPS). The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) of the underground and surface water samples shows that, concentration of certain heavy metals is above permissible limit. The heavy metals like As, Hg and Zn shows highest concentration, while metals such as Cu, Cd and Pb shows low concentration. The HPI of ground water were found comparatively low as compare with critical pollution limit of 100. The HPI of surface water near fly ash dumping site were ranged 5.56. The heavy metal pollution index indicates that leaching of fly ash contaminates the groundwater as well as surface water.
Abstract : Ichnofossils are biogenic structures preserved on or within the substrate by an organism during their various movements such as dwelling, feeding, resting etc. Ichnofossils are widely used for the interpretation of the paleo-environment of the sediments / rocks. The present paper documents four ichnospecies from the ferruginous sandstone of the Babaguru Formation (early Miocene), exposed in the Amravati river section, at Bhilod village, Cambay basin, India. The Babaguru Formation consists of four ichnofossils, namely, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Planolites beverleyensis, Skolithos linearis and Skolithos verticalis. The presence of these ichnofossils indicates that ferruginous sandstone of the Babaguru Formation was deposited in shallow water near-shore / foreshore marine environment with moderate to high energy conditions. Less density of the ichnofossils and dominance of only vertical burrows among present burrows may be probably due to the paucity of the nutrients in the sediments.
Abstract : Lignin, the nature's plastic is the major pollutant from paper-pulp mill effluent due to its intense unaesthetic brown color, hydrophobicity and poor mechanical properties, tends to be a recalcitrant compound. Textile dye-based industries release colored effluents due to presence of large amount of mixture of dyes which is also hazardous. Microbial extracellular lignin peroxidase enzymes have a potential to degrade lignin and a wide range of complex aromatic dyestuffs. From various environmental niches eleven isolates were screened for lignolytic activity, out of which two bacterial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were able to decolorize 44% to 49% of lignin. The studies on biobleaching of paper-pulp mill effluent gave 60% to 75% color reduction and in case of textile dye- based effluent 50% to 58% decolourization was observed. The heterogeneous combination of lignin peroxidases from mixed consortia gave 80% to 85% color reduction in treatment of paper-pulp mill effluent and 70% to 75% decolourization in treatment of textile dye-based effluent which is significantly high. This system of lignin peroxidase may be efficiently used in biobleaching and biodegradation of effluents from respective industries.
Abstract : Kolhapur city is a district place in the state of Maharashtra, India with population of 5, 49,283. It is one of the emerging industrial and commercial city of Western Maharashtra. Problems of pollution along with noise pollution are increasing with time especially due to increase in number of vehicles for transportation. In the present study, continuous monitoring of noise levels Leq dB (A) was carried out for three days in the month of December, 2011 at six different sites within the Kolhapur city. On the basis of location these sites were grouped into industrial, commercial, residential and silent zones respectively. The average noise level at industrial, commercial, residential and silence area are 74.28 dB (A), 65.52 dB (A), 58.88 dB (A) and 50.02 dB (A) respectively. The results showed that there is an enhanced pressure of noise at all sites due to increase in number of vehicles and facilities of transportation. All the sites under study showed higher sound level than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
Abstract : Productivity of sunflower is strongly depended on availability of water and greatest yield losses occur when water shortage occurs at flowering stage. In the present study eleven sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) inbred lines were evaluated under stress and non-stress conditions for sensitivity and resistance to drought. The experiment was laid out in a split plot based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Based on grain yield in the stress and non-stress conditions, drought resistance indices including geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), mean productivity (MP), tolerance index (TOL), harmonic mean (HM), stress susceptibility index (SSI), yield stability index (YSI) and yield index (YI) were calculated for each genotype. High grain yield per plant in non-stress and stress environments was exhibited by genotypes B147 (33.72 g) and R46 (14.2 g), respectively. The maximum value of STI (0.61), GMP (21.32) and HM (19.67) was belonging to genotype R46 and highest value of MP (23.19) was observed for genotype B147. Three dimensional and bi-plot graphs indicated that genotypes B147 and R46 have positive characteristics and are suitable for crossing to produce high yielding as well as drought resistant hybrids. STI, GMP, MP and HM indices showed high correlation with grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions and therefore could be used in breeding program for drought tolerance. SSI index due to ability to separate the sensitive genotype from the others is relatively efficient index for genotypic screening.
Abstract : The present work involves the study of the genotoxicity of an alkylating agent, dimethyl sulphte, and the possible protective efficacy of vitamin C against the toxicity of this chemical in the somatic cells (wing primordial) of Drosophila melanogaster following chronic larval exposures. For the wing mosaic assay two high bioactive strains of Drosophila melanogaster, viz., ORR; mwh/mwh and ORR; flr3/TM3, Ser were used. Third instar larvae of flr3/TM3, Ser and mwh homozygous male cross were exposed to the LD50 and lower doses of dimethyl sulphate (DMS) to find out its genotoxicity. Concurrent negative control was run simultaneously in each experiment, where the larvae were exposed to the solvent (distilled water). All the doses of DMS were found to be clearly genotoxic in Drosophila wing mosaic assay in comparison to the control. The frequencies of induction of small and large single spots were positive. With respect to the frequency of twin spots, the statistical outcome was positive at the highest dose and inconclusive at the three lower doses. When the larvae were concurrently treated with the mixture of 300mM of ascorbic acid and the different doses of dimethyl sulphate, except for the outcomes being weak for the small singles at 100mM and 50mM of DMS, the same for these spots at the two lower doses as well as for other types of spots at all the doses were negative compared to the DMS alone. In the present experiments the results clearly indicate antimutagenic and/or anticarcinogenic action of ascorbic acid against the mutagenicity of dimethyl sulphate irrespective of the mechanisms involved.
Abstract : Biomass production in different forms plays important role in carbon sequestration in trees. In the present investigation aboveground and belowground carbon sequestration potential of Albizia lebbeik from nine sectors of Aurangabad city was measured. The standing aboveground biomass and belowground biomass of Albizia lebbek were 53.73 tha-1 and 13.97 tha-1 respectively, while total standing biomass of Albizia lebbek in 2847 hectares area was 67.70 tha-1. The standing aboveground biomass and belowground biomass of Delonix regia were 30.25 tha-1 and 07.86tha-1 respectively, while total standing biomass of Delonix regia in 2847 hectares area was 38.11tha-1. The average carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide of Albizia lebbek intake is 33.85tha-1 and 124.23 tCO2 in Aurangabad. The average carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide of Delonix regia intake is 19.06tCha-1 and 63.96 tCO2 in Aurangabad. The highest sequestered carbon dioxide percentage in Albizia lebbek at sector 7th it is 20% and lowest at sector 1st it is 1%, while, in Delonix regia the highest in sector 7th (20%) and lowest in sector 1st (2%).
Abstract : With respect to country need to edible oils, it is more important to extend the cultivation of oilseeds. Although, safflower is the native plant of Iran and it is resistant to drought and salty stresses, but a few studies have been done on it. Today, improvement and manipulating of some of undesirable traits of safflower is possible by genetic engineering tools. During the manipulating process, important stages of tissue culture specially, regeneration phase of deformed plant has high worth. In order to evaluate the effect of explants, type of hormones and hormone levels on callus length and weight in summer safflower cultivars, an experiment was carried out in factorial based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications and four factors (safflower cultivars, explants, type of hormones and hormone levels ) in 2011. Results showed that safflower cultivars (Iraqi 222 and 34069) and explants (hypocotyle and cotyledon) had a significant effect on the callus length. Based on the results, the effect of hormones and hormone levels were significant on callus weight. 34069 and hypocotyle were known as a premier compounds due to maximum length of callus and Iraqi 222 at both explants were known as low yield compound due to the shortest callus length. Also it was revealed maximum callus weight was related to hormone levels (2 mg per liter) and Zeatin hormone.
Abstract : Kitchen refuses are an array of discarded stuffs that originate in the kitchen of urban category and find disposal problems at large. With the mushrooming of multy-story apartments, the space of the backyard of the yester years is nothing but a dream. Although an immense effort is put in, in clearance of garbage yet cleanliness and time accuracy is still a wanting scenario under Indian circumstances. Usefulness of kitchen refuse as composting was an old world scenario wherein a backyard with an orchard, a flower garden and kitchen garden was made use of the thrown kitchen refuse. Currently many urbanites certainly want to make use of kitchen refuse into utilizable manure from the point of eco-friendly, pollution-free zone; however a method although exist the problem of leachate, smell and fly menace limits the technology of aerobic composting and vermicomposting. In the present paper a simple use of LARM either as cocopith, bagasse and or jute waste has solved the problem of leachate, fly menace and obnoxious odor at one go and result in complete aerobic compost /vermicompost. The study reveals the avoidance of energy oriented engineering models are not a mandatory. The simpler composting/vermicomposting can be an act by use of LARM.
Abstract : Algae (singular Algae) is a term that encompasses many different groups of living organism. Algae capture light energy through photosynthesis and convert inorganic substances into simple sugar. Algae made up of eukaryotic cells and range from single cell to multicellular organisms. All algae have plastids, with chlorophyll that carry out photosynthesis, but various lines of algae can have different combinations of chlorophyll molecules; some contained chlorophyll A, some possess Chl. A-B and A-C. These are the most robust organism on earth, able to grow in a wide range of conditions . Algal strains, diatoms, and cyanobacteria have been found to contain proportionally high levels of lipids (over 30%). Ajmer Milk Dairy treated waste water was further treaded by Algae. Treatment level of waste water determined by estimation of ammonia, Nitrate, Phosphorous, DO (Dissolved oxygen) and BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand). The growth pattern of algal samples were observed by chlorophyll estimation ,Biomass Estimation (Dry weight) method. Algae are an important bioremediation agent and are already being used by many wastewater facilities. The treated dairy waste water are used for algal growth and final product of algal growth are used as a biomass for biofuel production and this treated dairy waste also treated by that algae and use in further many work such as in agriculture, other industrial process.
Abstract : Human impact on nature has risen dramatically as the scope and intensity of human activities has increased. Although there has been progress recently in tackling air and water pollution problems in some countries many negative trends, such as loss of tropical forests and contaminated water are more acute. Hence, In our study, the ground water samples were taken from twelve tube wells from Nipani town and analyzed every month throughout the year. The results revealed that the ground water from the localities near the industries and sewage disposal sites contained residual chlorine (25-28 mg/l). The seasonal analysis indicated that the levels of residual chlorine were generally least in summer and more in winter season and low during rainy season. The higher level of residual chlorine at winter season deteriorate quality of groundwater in the vicinity of Nipani town, making it unfit for drinking purpose, which can be serious problem in future. During present investigation groundwater pollution was evaluated with the measurement of levels of residual chlorine contents.
Abstract : Water is the most natural resource and it is essential for all forms of life. Without water man can't surviv. Due to population explosion, urbanization and industrialization the water is getting polluted day by day unlike in the past, When natural resources are considered to be abundant, the present situation is completely different. Outdated technologies by the industries cause a lot of waste. These wastes enter into the water and soil systems directly or indirectly through various processes. It is a responsibility of any individual and environmental scientist to address this problem to control and take this problem at grass root to find an economical solution. The present study deals with the removal of chromium (VI) by adsorption process by using a waste and ecofriendly material such as Mangifera indica. The experiments are conducted by batch process. Experiments are conducted with respect contact time, concentration and adsorbent dosage. The optimum contact time found is equal . The optimum dosage is equal to 0.8gms. The percentage removal is ranging between 93% - 95%.
Abstract : The urbanization rate in India is very fast. It has increased from 10.84 to 28.5% upto 2001. Unregulated growth of urban area causes many problems. Due to increase in population, urbanization and industrialization, many air pollutants are entering into atmosphere and causing diseases. One of the most toxic air pollutant is NO2. The present study deals with the adsorption of aqueous solution of NO2 by mango bark dust. The adsorption experiments were conducted with respect to contact time, mango bark dust dosages, concentration and temperature. It was found that percentage removal increased with increase in contact time and with increase in adsorbent dosage. It follows first order kinetics. The amount of NO2 gas adsorbed is more at lower concentration than at higher concentrations.