Abstract : Environmental toxicology studies the effect of environmental toxicants on the health of all organisms and on the different compartments of the environment. Despite the scientific studies carried out over the years, on the toxic effects of lead on development of organism, still there are uncertainties over the reproductive effects of different levels of lead exposure. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. Reproductive dysfunctions by lead have distinct morphological changes, decrease sperm quality and alter sperm morphology. The effect of different toxicants is registered at different levels of development of the male reproductive tract, thus rendering the analysis of reproductive damage much more complicated. In the animal model, lead has a primary effect on the testes, and acts at all levels of the developing reproductive axis. The present review is undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead acetate on development of reproductive system in Swiss albino mice. Previous reported studies shown that lead exposure suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, thus alters the histology of testis, the morphology of the spermatozoa and the relationship of cell types in the testes. Mating of lead-treated males with non-treated females confirmed the reduction of fertility in the exposed males.
Abstract : Drug toxicology tests are most commonly performed on urine, since most drugs and their breakdown products are excreted in the urine at higher concentration. A total number of 449 inhabitant urine samples were collected from patients admitted to emergency hospital, Mansoura University (Nov 1999 to June 2005). These samples were analyzed by EMIT and GC / MS for benzodiazepine, barbiturate, opiate and cannabinoid. The aim of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of using urine immunoassay kits for detection of some drugs of abuse, and study the correlation between the results obtained by EMIT and GC / MS techniques. Results revealed that urine immunoassay kit is useful for rapid preliminary screening of abuse drug. GC / MS results confirm that 245 samples (54.56 %) are positive of the total number of samples. These positive samples by GC / MS were as follows; benzodiazepines; 159 (clonazepam, oxazepam, temazepam), barbiturates; 58 (thiobarbiturate, butabarbital, seconal) and opiates; 28 (methadone metabolite)). We conclude that GC / MS analysis must be done for accurate identification and confirmation of EMIT results. Also, GC / MS is recommended as the most suitable technique for obtaining optimum analytical results.
Abstract : Leaves of Ficus retusa were collected from three locations; suburban, urban and industrial in Northern Egypt. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils collected from the suburban site were lower than that collected from other sites. Plants washed with 1% soap showed better growth, higher chlorophyll content and higher photosynthetic rates than those remained unwashed or washed with tap water or 0.1N HCl. Our results indicated that washing treatments alleviated the phytotoxic effects of heavy metal pollution on plants.
Abstract : Chlorides are the natural substances which are found in the water bodies in varying amounts. However, their concentrations are significantly low. However, the industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewaters that are generated from the human society may contain large amount of chlorides, which can cause significant disruption in the ecological balance. Many techniques have been adopted in order to reduce the amount of chlorides in wastewater like demineralization, reverse osmosis, coagulation, precipitation, electrodialysis and so on. However, these techniques are physico-chemical in nature, and are cost consuming capital cost wise as well as maintenance cost wise. Therefore, the following paper makes an effort towards putting forth a biological alternative for the removal of chlorides from wastewater. The present paper studies the suitability of Parthenium sp. as a sorbent for chloride removal. Further, variations in the efficiency of biosorption with respect to different pH, concentration and time were studied. The paper concluded that Parthenium sps. dried biomass is capable of achieving upto 40% reduction in the chloride content at Lab scale.
Abstract : Cocoon crop stability with sustainably good performance is a prerequisite to introduce bivoltine races in a tropical country like India under high temperature and humidity stress. Considering the poor performance of productive bivoltine hybrids during summer season, emphasis was given to evolve bivoltine silkworm breeds suitable to tropical conditions for achieving the primary objective of establishing bivoltine sericulture with quality raw silk among sericulturists. In India, it is not conducive to rear highly productive bivoltine hybrids, especially in summer. Therefore, attempts are being made to develop bivoltine silkworm hybrids tolerant to high temperature situations of the tropics. Attempts made earlier on these lines had resulted in the development of robust bivoltine hybrids viz., CSR18 x CSR19, CSR46 x CSR47 and CSR50 x CSR51. However, these hybrids could not make any impact in Indian sericulture industry. Keeping this in view, attempt is being made here to develop bivoltine double hybrid tolerant to high temperature and high humidity conditions of the tropics. The breeding process as well as the comparative performance of the new hybrid with the already developed double hybrid is also discussed in detail. The study has resulted in the development of bivoltine double hybrid tolerant to high temperature and high humidity conditions of the tropics.
Abstract : Land areas which are wet during part or all of the year are referred as wetlands. Constructed wetlands are manmade systems that mimic the functions of natural wetlands and applied for wastewater treatment. Aim of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of using a macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes in constructed wetland for treatment of wastewater in an institutional complex. The daily inlet and outlet wastewater physico-chemical parameters were analyzed during the period of two months. The parameters studied were pH, BOD, COD, DO, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Nitrogen and Phosphorus. The percentage removal of the parameters were analyzed and studied until the percent removal rate gets stabilized. The study showed that the surface flow constructed wetlands are best alternative among modern treatments.
Abstract : Earthworms in the second decade of 21st century are the most significant figure in the realm of biodegradation of agricultural wastes, agro-industrial wastes, urban organic garbage and sewage sludge. The degraded product as their excreta find resolvable route to sustainable agriculture, a most relevant solution for the developed-developing country like India to enhance sustainability of soil organic matter for balance of physical-chemical-biological properties. Earthworms virtually stand alone as a symbol of "clean technology" in the field of organic waste transformations and also stand alone as a symbol of "sustainable organic agriculture technology". Although several protocols and techniques have been shown and implemented in India we still lack a suitable, modifiable and appropriate feasible technology for organic garbage into vermicompost at the levels of ward, community and corporate/municipality, which is the need of the hour. India being an agrarian country needs valuable, processed organic inputs to sustain its soils. Indian wet garbage accounting for average 60% of the country's total organic garbage generated, must be considered as resourceful by-product for human endeavor, to make it a ready source for vermicomposting and finding a return route to productive soils. Business partnership considering organic garbage as "organic wealth", for innovation and entrepreneurship, research, education and technology development, all within a framework of a partnership between city Corporations, private research and development units and Universities as sustainable workable models for all seasons need to be implemented in India, independent of Govt. agencies for fruitful ventures. Currently handling of garbage by the Corporations and Municipalities need a thorough brush -up which is operating on the grounds of political scenario rather than on the grounds of techno-commercial ventures. This paper calls for the attention of theoretical scientists to look for macro-level practicalities and also challenges its current, innovative Aerobic Sponge Method Vermitechnology (ASMV), its implementations anywhere with authenticity in terms of feasibility and sustainability on the grounds of working modalities along with sustainable returns through "organic garbage filth to organic cabbage growth" motto.
Abstract : CO2 has risen to the top of the list of the energy sector's environmental impacts and petroleum refining in particular, as the source of anthropogenic climate change. CO2 emissions inventory from the petroleum refining sector in Cameroon reported in this article was conducted following the recommendations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); it concerns the unique refinery called the Cameroon national refinery (SONARA). This assessment is based on a bottom-up methodology of Tier 3. The combustibles data are obtained from the SONARA Technical Department during the period 2000-2008. The combustibles emission factors were determined after measurements following the American Society of Testing Materials standards within the SONARA laboratory. Hence, assessment results of CO2 emissions at the SONARA show about 239 kilotons of CO2 were rejected into the atmosphere. That is 5.56% the total CO2 emissions in Cameroon for the year 2008. Moreover, the furnace of the atmospheric unit distillation is the combustion zone that emits the most CO2. Emissions account for 45% of CO2 emissions at the SONARA that is an average of 96.3 kilotons. This is the first CO2 inventory for the petroleum refining category carried out in Cameroon; but we could not include fugitive emissions. However, the guidelines of the UNFCCC on GHG inventories state that countries shall report a national communication of anthropogenic emissions to the Conference of Parties, according to their capacities.
Abstract : Energy transformations and energetic of oligochaete species is available in population/ecological energetic of the soil inhabitants of the temperate and tropical regions. The study of bioenergetics is relevant for both basic sciences as well as applied fields to assess the environmental impact on the economically important organisms like compost earthworms. In the present research an experiment has been implemented to study the utilization of food budget in the tropical compost earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae under regular seasonal patterns of rainy, winter and summer by providing ad libitum partially-aerobically decomposed cattle dung. This study was done to know the effect of season on the feeding, defecation and cocoon production of the earthworms for its best utilization from the point of commercialization under three agro-climatic conditions. The fate of eaten food from hatchlings to post reproductive periods were documented for the study of growth period, growth, food consumption, daily food intake as a function of age group, total food intake as function of age group, feeding rate, feces defecation, food assimilation, assimilation rate (ASR), assimilation efficiency (ASE), conversion of assimilated food into body substance, conversion rate, gross conversion efficiency (K1), net conversion efficiency (K2), food oxidized as an expression of metabolism and metabolic rate. The impact of season on the feeding, defecation, absorption, assimilation and cocoon production has been discussed in detail.
Abstract : In this work, yard-scale horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands were fed with primarily treated domestic wastewater to assess the growth of and biomass production from Echinochloa pyramidalis, E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra. The loading rate of about 85 liters per m2 per day was applied to each wetland for two consecutive years. Growth parameters including plant density, height of plants, diameter of stems and leaf dimensions were measured after every two weeks. The aerial parts of the plants were harvested and weighed after each season. Total biomasses ranging from 113 to 154 tons/hectare/year were estimated for E. pyramidalis, while for E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra they were estimated to range from 74 to 79 tons/hectare/year and from 61 to 64 tons/hectare/year respectively. The biomass yield of E. pyramidalis was significantly higher than those of E. crus-pavonis and Leersia hexandra. In addition more biomasses were produced in the dry seasons than in the rainy seasons. The growth and biomass yields were significantly influenced by the seasons and temperature.
Abstract : Calcareous soil with various physical parameters along with morphological characteristics Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) was used for removal of Fe+2 from aqueous solution through batch process. During batch study various parameters effects on the adsorption capacity of Fe+2. This adsorption was followed by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model. The activation energy was determined at 9.47 kJ/mol indicating physical adsorption. According to D-R model, Es also supports this. Gibb's free energy (ΔG°), explains the spontaneous nature of adsorption and negative value of ?H0 implies exothermic nature. A six layered feed forward neural network with back propagation training algorithm was developed using twenty one experimental data sets obtained from laboratory batch study. The ANN predicted results were compared with the experimental results of the laboratory test. It was concluded that calcareous soil is an effective adsorbent for removal of Fe+2 from aqueous solution.
Abstract : A systematic planning of groundwater exploitation using modern techniques is essential for proper utilization and management of this precious but shrinking natural resource. With the advent of powerful and high-speed personal computers, efficient techniques for water management have evolved, of which Geoinformatics technology are of great significance. In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate possible groundwater potential zones in semi arid region of Ghataprabha basin. The thematic layers considered in this study are lithology, landform, drainage density, recharge, soil, land slope and surface water body, which were prepared using the Google Earth imagery and conventional data. All these themes and their individual features were then assigned weights according to their relative importance in groundwater occurrence and the corresponding normalized weights were obtained based on the Saaty's analytical hierarchy process. The thematic layers were finally integrated using AutoDeskMAP and MapInfo GIS software to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. Thus, three different groundwater potential zones were identified, namely 'good', 'moderate' and 'poor'. Moreover, the average annually exploitable groundwater reserve in the good zone was estimated to be 915 million cubic meter (MCM), whereas it is 381.25 915 MCM for the moderate zone and 228.75 MCM for the poor zone. Finally, it is concluded that the Geoinformatics technology are very efficient and useful for the identification of groundwater potential zones.
Abstract : In this work the feasibility of employing calcareous soil to remove lead (II) ions from its aqueous solutions was investigated under batch mode. The influence of solution pH, sorbent dose, initial lead (II) concentration, contact time, stirring rate and temperature on the removal process were investigated. The lead adsorption was favored with maximum adsorption at pH 6.0. Sorption equilibrium time was observed in 60 min. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of Pb(II) ion was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and surface mass transfer models. It was shown that the adsorption of lead ions could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The activation energy of the adsorption process (Ea) was found to be -34.64 kJ mol-1 by using the Arrhenius equation, indicating exothermic nature of lead adsorption onto calcareous soil. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy (ΔH°) and the entropy change of sorption ((ΔS°)) have also been evaluated and it has been found that the adsorption process was spontaneous, feasible and exothermic in nature. A six layered feed forward neural network with back propagation training algorithm was developed using thirty one experimental data sets obtained from laboratory batch study. The ANN predicted results were compared with the experimental results of the laboratory test. It was concluded that calcareous soil has potential for application as an effective adsorbent for removal of lead ions from aqueous solution.
Abstract : Precise estimation of evapotranspiration obtained by multiplying crop coefficient to reference evapotranspiration using readily available climatic data. Penman-Monteith equation is adopted world wide as the most reliable and accurate method for computing reference evapotranspiration. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) presented crop coefficient for estimation of evapotranspiration of different crops based on Penman-Monteith equation. The crop coefficient curves can be developed by plotting the ratios of crop evapotranspiration and reference evapotranspiration with respect to time. The crop coefficient curves were developed for mustard (Brassica juncea) by FAO-56 curve method and modified FAO-56 curve method. The FAO-56 curve method underestimates mustard evapotranspiration by 16.80 per cent. Therefore, FAO-56 curve method does not appear to predict mustard evapotranspiration accurately. The modified FAO-56 curve method underestimates mustard evapotranspiration only by 8.33 per cent. Therefore, performance of modified FAO-56 curve method was found better than FAO-56 curve method for estimation of mustard evapotranspiration.
Abstract : This paper reveals the study of low cost traditional water harvesting structures that helps in improving the socio-economic status of the poor farmers of the hill region. In the foothill region of North Western Himalayan region of India, the soil erosion has converted most of the fertile soils into barren, fallow and degraded lands. It is estimated that about 40 per cent of the total geographical area of Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Jammu and Kashmir is highly degraded. Soil loss through erosion is about 3.6 to 80 t ha-1. The farmers are not aware of rainwater management for storage and ground water recharge. The major constraints identified for conservation and management of water and soil in the area includes lack of technical knowledge and poor economic status of the farmers. Assessment of the area showed that if rainwater is conserved vis-à-vis managed properly and existing technologies are refined for specific land and pedospheric characteristics, it would rehabilitate the degraded lands and in turn increase the productivity in the area. Low cost farm ponds are a better option for collecting rainwater excess during monsoon periods for utilization for irrigation. The most efficient and cheapest way of conserving rainwater at the agricultural farm was found to be in-situ runoff management, which also reduces soil losses and increases the opportunity time for ground water recharging. The earthen embankment for rainwater harvesting has cost benefit ratio of 1.38:1. In addition, good results of harvesting and storage are being achieved in ferro-cement water storage structures of different dimensions of 3 to 5 m deep and 1 to 3 m in diameter.
Abstract : Natural dyes are considered as sustainable and eco-friendly dyes. They can produce different shades of colours and have lower colour fastness than synthetic dyes. The products of natural dyes are very much in demand due to their ability to produce different shades and eco-friendly nature. The normal method to produce natural dyes from plants is by boiling in water and the coloured extract produced is dyed on fabric The colurs of natural dyes from plants come from leaves, barks, roots, fruits or berries. In this study, waste from Gluta aptera wood (Rengas), obtained from Wood Engineering Laboratory at Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), was tried and used as natural dye source due to the colour of the wood which is blood-red. The boiling and solvent extraction methods were used to obtain the dyes. The extracted dyes were applied on silk and cotton fabrics and their comparison in term of colours and shades on substrates, method of extractions as well as their ability to witstand washing, light and perspiration were compared.
Abstract : Microorganisms are known to spread via air, water, food etc. an important mechanism of the spread of pathogens by formites. Food, water and soil borne infection are estimated to be affecting almost half of the world population. Paper currency notes which are transferred from one individual to other are known to carry bacteria on their surface and are responsible for transmitting them. These notes are susceptible to bacterial contamination during contaminate handing from person to person. An individual living in unhygienic conditions having unhygienic habits will contaminate the notes with bacteria e.g. habits such as using soling to count the paper notes also leads to the contamination and these notes will act as a vehicle delivering bacteria to contaminate the hands of the next user. Diseases continue to be a cause of major concern to human health in several part of the globe including in India, causing high morbidity, mortality and economic losses. Diseases that are transmittable contribute to paper currency this statistics by affecting human health and causing heavy looses directly or indirectly to economy. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the incidence and transmittance of microbes analysis from the paper currency collected from different regions of Ajmer and the presence of Escherichiacoli, Enterobacter spp. has been observed in the studied samples thereby highlighting the role of paper currency in spread of diseases.
Abstract : Over the last few decades, several models have been developed, attempting the successful forecasting of rainfall in India. Before going into robust methods, it is always healthy to analyze the recorded data. This paper presents the use of statistical techniques: multiple linear regression method in modeling the rainfall prediction over Tamil Nadu. The rainfall data for a period of 110 years was obtained from Indian Meteorological department, Chennai. The other parameters used to predict the rainfall was Outgoing long wave radiation, global temperature and sunspot numbers. The percentage error estimated was 15%. Thus the Outgoing long wave radiation, global temperature and sunspot numbers can be used as firm predictors of rainfall in other techniques like artificial neural network, GCM, etc. Thus this paper aims at determining the best predictors for forecasting the Tamil Nadu rainfall using statistical method.
Abstract : The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) of a textile industry located in kagal-Hatkanangale MIDC area, Kolhapur (Maharashtra). An effluent treatment plant is operating on biological treatment method (Fluidized Aerobic Bio-Reactor) with an average wastewater inflow of 2MLD has been considered for case study. The wastewater is analyzed for the major water quality parameters, such as pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The effluent samples were collected on a daily basis for a period of one month. The raw wastewater pH was highly alkaline it was then bringing down to neutral which was helpful for biological treatment. The BOD, COD of the treated effluent reduced significantly, where as very small reduction was observed in dissolved solids. Most of all the parameters were within the permissible limits of Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, India.
Abstract : Rainfall is a phenomenon, which directly or indirectly affects all the sectors like agriculture, insurance, industry and other allied fields. Prediction of rainfall has remained an unsolved problem till now. One of the statistical techniques is the Markov chain used to predict precipitation on short term, at meteorological stations. This paper deals with the variations of annual rainfall in Tamil Nadu based on Markov Chain models. For this purpose, we derived annual rainfall from 1901 to 2000 and frequency distribution table is formed. To calculate the yearly rainfall variations the class interval is treated as states and transition probability matrix is formed. The uniform random states are also formed by generating uniform random number. If the future climate conditions are known with sufficient accuracy, the stochastic climate models available at present can be adapted to generate climate for the new conditions.
Abstract : During a visit to the Vansda National Park (VNP), Gujarat, a male specimen of Montane Trinket snake Coelognathus helena monticollaris, Sculz, 1992, (20o45' 25.55" N 73o28' 36.49" E) was spotted resting near a water body at the elevation of 487 ft., on May 21, 2011. Vansda National Park (Figure 1) (20051'16"-21021'22"N & 73020'30"- 73031'20"E) in Vansda Taluka of Navsari District is a hilly terrain with hills of moderate altitudes from 110-360m, an extension of the Sahyadri Range (North Western Ghat). After 1986 the forest area of 23.99 km2 was declared as National Park under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 by the State Forest Department, Government of Gujarat (notification no. GANV/3585/WLP/2076/87594 dated 13.vi.1986). As the forest forms continuous tract with the forest of adjoining district of Dangs, the sanctuary is managed by South Dangs Forest Division. The forest belongs to the category of tropical moist deciduous forests and the terrain represents northern and western limits of the Western Ghats.
Abstract : Tropical cyclones are one of the nature's most violent manifestations and potentially the deadliest of all meteorological phenomena. In this paper, an attempt is being made to study the Tropical Cyclonic disturbance over the North Indian Ocean (comprising Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) by natural climate variability. In order to understand how the tropical cyclones will cause change in future climate, we need first to understand their respond to natural climate variability. The predictor chosen is the intraseasonal - interannual time scale namely Quasi - Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Correlation coefficients are found for westerly and easterly phase of the QBO. The correlated values are least negative. The correlation is less significant for the Tropical Cyclone and QBO data.
Abstract : In the present study 110 years (1900-2010) data is used for studying correlative effects between southwest (June-September) and northeast monsoon (October -December) rainfall over Tamil Nadu. For the period of different solar cycles, we compute the correlation coefficients using Spearman Rank technique. A correlation analysis between the two rainfall series revealed that the southwest monsoon rainfall is negatively correlated with that of the northeast monsoon rainfall. That is, an excess or deficit of southwest monsoon rainfall over this region is generally followed by an opposite tendency in the northeast monsoon rainfall. It also reveals that the rainfall in the two monsoons is not independent of each other. The negative rainfall relationship can be a useful tool in foreshadowing the northeast monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu, which is of considerable economic importance for this region.