Volume 1, Issue 3

In this issue:


  • Geoinformatics Technology Application in North Karnataka for Water Resources Management
    Authors: Basavaraj Hutti and Nijagunappa R.

    Abstract : Karnataka is in dearth of water resources, especially in its arid and semi-arid regions. So the management of water resources in these areas is very important. The annual average rainfall of 50 cm for the whole country and its totality area, it has been discovered that total water resources in India are of the order of 167 million hectare-meters. It has further been calculated that only 66 million hectare-meters of water resources in India can be employed for irrigation. The population of India as on 2011 stood at 1,210,193,422 (1.21 billion) persons. Thus, India supports about 1/6th of world population, 1/50th of world's land and 1/25th of world's water resources. India also has a livestock population of 500 million, which is about 20 percent of the world's total livestock population. More than half of these are cattle, forming the backbone of Indian agriculture. The total utilizable water resources of the country are assessed as 1086 km3. Geoinformatics technology has its special advantage in this aspect. The paper introduces the applications of Geoinformatics, including remote sensing, geographical information system and global positioning system, in this field, such as surface water resources, groundwater exploration, dynamic monitoring of floods, water environment and drought monitoring, planning of water diversion project between basins and so on. It shows that Geoinformatics technology can play important role for North Karnataka development, especially in India. India is still an agricultural country; with the advent of powerful and high-speed personal computers, efficient techniques for water resource management have evolved, of which Geoinformatics technology includes RS (Remote Sensing), GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) are of great significance.

  • A Short Review on Process and Applications of Reverse Osmosis
    Authors: Garud R. M., Kore S. V., Kore V. S., Kulkarni G. S.

    Abstract : Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane based process technology to purify water by separating the dissolved solids from feed stream resulting in permeate and reject stream for a wide range of applications in domestic as well as industrial applications. It is seen from literature review that RO technology is used to remove dissolved solids, colour, organic contaminants, and nitrate from feed stream. Hence RO technology used in the treatment of water and hazardous waste, separation processes in the food, beverage and paper industry, as well as recovery of organic and inorganic materials from chemical processes as an alternative method . This paper intends to provide an overall vision of RO technology as an alternative method for treating wastewater in different Industrial applications. The present short review shows applicability of RO system for treating effluents from beverage industry, distillery spent wash, ground water treatment, recovery of phenol compounds, and reclamation of wastewater and sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) treatment indicating efficiency and applicability of RO technology.

  • Modelling of Crop Reference Evapotranspiration: A Review
    Authors: Rohitashw Kumar, Vijay Shankar and Mahesh Kumar

    Abstract : Efficient irrigation water management requires a good quantification of evapotranspiration. The precise estimation of water requirement of crop is very important factor in the application of irrigation design and scheduling. Water relation model are essential component of all crop model because of critical role of water status has in determining growth, productivity and produce quality. Irrigation futures aim to identify an appropriate model for the calculation of reference crop evapotranspiration. Different climatological methods are using for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity. This paper evaluate and review the use of different evapotranspiration models and data in studies of geographical ecology it is also used in the estimation of daily water requirements for agricultural crops grown in different climatic regions of India and worldwide.

  • A Short Review on Energy Conservation in Buildings Using Roof Coating Materials for Hot and Dry Climates
    Authors: Shruti Poonia, A.S.Jethoo and M.P.Poonia

    Abstract : Hot and dry climatic regions are known by very high solar radiation levels, high ambient temperatures and relatively low specific humidity. The roof surface of the building is always exposed to Sun directly for the longest duration in hot and dry regions to the intense perpendicular solar heat radiations. Solar radiation is a significant mode of heat transfer through the building roof. Solar radiation heat the roof which in turn re-radiates the heat onto the ceiling and finally on to the room occupants. Most of the roofs in the world are of dark colour. In summer, the surface of a black roof can increase in temperature as much as 65 to 90 ?C. At higher roof temperatures the deterioration of roofing materials starts and leads to increased roof maintenance costs, and high levels of roofing waste directed to landfills. The best way to reduce this is with the help of radiant barriers such as light coloured metallic or non metallic surfaces which have high solar reflectance and a high emittance to redirect the radiations back to the environment. Due to this, the heat transfer from the roof surface to the ceiling will become negligible. By blocking the solar radiations, the building conditioning is largely mitigated because heating and cooling usually use largest portion of energy in buildings. Low temperature roofs benefit the environment and public health by reducing greenhouse gas emissions by conserving energy for air conditioning; therefore less CO2 is emitted from power plant. In the present paper various approaches to redirect the solar radiations by using different roof coating materials from the roof, their relative benefits in terms of energy and cost savings has been discussed at length.

  • Decomposable Garbage as an Anthropogenic Factor and Need for Positive Perspective: A Review
    Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa

    Abstract : Garbage mainly as decomposable waste and recyclable plastics are the loitered waste commonly observed by every urbanite in India. The problems of garbage are likely to be intensified due to shrinking of municipal budgets (Muller and Schienberg, web search). From the perspectives of nature, garbage especially of decomposable type are resolvable commodity provided how we support nature for its processing. Biologists and anthropologists apart from the ruling Government, must work hand-in-hand to scrutinize multiples of existing technologies required to be re-researched and to be re-exhibited on pilot scales that needs to be done in one's hometown. Observations made by Ogawa (web search), shows that successful projects in line of solid waste management in the developing countries are meager and a very few success shown were until with the external support agencies. Later dwindle as socio-economic crisis begin. After analyzing the details of decomposable garbage as disposable/recycling/energy production/composting/landfills -the study has shown the effective transformation of decomposable garbage into economically feasible, bioremedial, sustainable, rethinkable technology as aerobic composting followed by vermicomposting to make use of the product for soil reclamation, organic agriculture as sustainable technology at least for Indian suburbs.


  • Dyeing of Silk with Ecofriendly Natural Dye obtained from Barks of Ficus Religiosa. L
    Authors: Saravanan P. and Chandramohan G.

    Abstract : The present investigation was carried out to revive the old art of dyeing with natural dye obtained from barks of Ficus religiosa.L. Ficus religiosa.L belongs to family moraceae, commonly known as peepal tree. The dye has good scope in the commercial dyeing of silk in garments industry. In the present study, bleached silk fabrics were dyed with chemical and natural mordants. Dyeing was carried out by pre-mordanting, post mordanting and simultaneous mordatning. The dyed samples have shown good washing, light and rubbing fastness properties. The various colour changes were measured by computer colour matching software. The heavy metals like antimony, arsenic, cadmium and lead present in the extract were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer.

  • Studies on Limnological Characteristic, Planktonic Diversity and Fishes (Species) in Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India)
    Authors: Sharma Riddhi, Sharma Vipul, Sharma Madhu Sudan, Verma Bhoopendra Kumar, Modi Rachana and Gaur Kuldeep Singh

    Abstract : Limnological parameter and plankton diversity are an important criterion for determining the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking purpose. Lake Pichhola has greatest importance for humankind. The specific status of limnological characteristic and diversity of plankton in lake Pichhola have been studied through seasonal surveys in two annual cycles (2005-06 and 2006-07) and annual survey of fishes in two annual cycles (2005-06 and 2006-07). The water remained moderately alkaline (pH 7.5) while electrical conductance (0.3958 mS/cm), TDS (237.5mg/l), chloride (176mg/l), hardness (174.33mg/l) and alkalinity (207.16mg/l) showed low mean values. Average dissolved oxygen levels were at 5.75mg/l while average nitrate and phosphate levels were 3.70mg/l and 2.79mg/l respectively. On the basis of water quality parameters in general, lake Pichhola was found to be eutrophic. A high rate of primary production (302.085mgc/m2/hr), diversity of phytoplankton (58 forms), zooplankton (104 forms) and fish (15 species) were also observed during the study period. Therefore, lake Pichhola has rich number of species and biodiversity of aquatic animals.

  • Physicochemical Status and Primary Productivity of Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer (Rajasthan), India
    Authors: Vijay Kumar Koli and Madhur Mohan Ranga

    Abstract : Primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters were estimated in Ana Sagar Lake, Ajmer from September 2007 to August 2008. GPP value ranged between 1.93 and 6.24 gC/m2/day, NPP ranged between 0.72 and 4.99 gC/m2/day and Community respiration ranged from 0.26 to 3.6 gC/m2/day. Water temperature varied from 16.4°C to 31.2°C. pH and transparency ranged between 6.7 and 10.2 and 34 cm and 65 cm respectively. Variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) was from 6.7 to 10.7 mg/l. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and alkalinity varied from 9.2 to 25.2 mg/l and 176 to 264 mg/l. Concentration of nutrients viz. chloride (18.5 to 32.4 mg/l), nitrate (12.9 to 26.4 mg/l) and phosphate (1.2 to 3.2 mg/l) also varied independently. Primary productivity and physico-chemical values of the lake were found high, mainly due to sewage discharged, industrial effluents and the agricultural runoff by surrounding city population. High values of productivity and nutrients also exposed its eutrophic condition.

  • Feasibility Studies for Reuse of Constructed Wetlands Treating Simulated Nickel Containing Groundwater
    Authors: Sivaraman C., Arulazhagan P., Dirk Walther, Vasudevan N.

    Abstract : Constructed wetlands are considered as low cost treatment option for domestic and industrial wastewater in the recent decades. The presence of toxic heavy metals in wastewater is a problematic issue, since these heavy metals have potential to accumulate in the treatment systems. Thus heavy metals greatly influence the efficiency of constructed wetlands. Therefore a feasibility study was proposed for long term usage of constructed wetlands as treatment systems. Initially sediment in a constructed wetland was contaminated with simulated nickel containing groundwater followed by using suitable leaching solution to rejuvenate the heavy metal contaminated sediment. A batch study was performed to identify the optimum pH for nickel adsorption on sand. The efficiency of different leaching solutions to remove the adsorbed nickel from sand was studied. Following this a Pilot scale study was carried out in constructed wetland treatment plant (vertical flow) at Anna University, Chennai, India. The amount of nickel solution charged into the Control Cell (sand) and Test Cell (sand planted with Arundo donax) was 29000 mg/cell. The concentration of nickel adsorbed to sand increased from 0.2mg/Kg to 4.34 mg/Kg in the control cell whereas the increase in test cell was 4.08mg/Kg. Leaching the wetland with EDTA solution resulted in removal of nickel up to its background concentrations on the sand. It can be concluded that the proposed feasibility study can be used to rejuvenate the sediment in a constructed wetland for its long term usage as treatment systems.

  • Evaluation of Interpolation Technique for Air Quality Parameters in Port Blair, India
    Authors: Dilip Kumar Jha, M.Sabesan, Anup Das, N.V.Vinithkumar and R. Kirubagaran

    Abstract : Evaluation of interpolation technique was investigated for air quality parameters such as suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air of Port Blair, India. The interpolation methods such as inverse distance weighted (IDW) and kriging were tested to develop air quality model. The interpolated and corresponding measured values were compared by three statistical test such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and index of agreement (d). The ANOVA showed significant site wise variation for SPM, SO2 and NO2 concentrations. The concentration of SPM, NO2 and SO2 ranged between 35-174, 5-24 and 4-11 µg/m2 respectively. The observed concentrations of air quality parameters were found below the permissible limit of Central Pollution Control Board of India. The IDW showed better similarity between measured and interpolated values of SPM, SO2 and NO2 than kriging method. MAE and RMSE were low for air quality parameters in IDW method. The'd' was observed higher in IDW method, which attributes better similarity between measured and interpolated values. Interpolation methods and statistical result have been discussed in detail for assessment and monitoring of air quality parameters.

  • Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Concentration in Thick Unconfined Aquifer of Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India
    Authors: Ghosh Tathagata and Kanchan Rolee

    Abstract : Groundwater is one of the major sources of drinking water in several parts of the world. At the same time it is associated with contamination and health issues. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is one of the major concerns among them. In India, many parts of West Bengal plain are severely affected by Arsenic concentration. From the severity of the problem the utmost priority is to identify the major hot spots of the arsenic concentration. To evaluate the behavior of arsenic in groundwater both in terms of spatial and temporal aspect, samples are collected from the unconfined aquifer of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, for three following years in different seasons. An important relationship is found between the arsenic concentration, rainfall intensity and the subsurface lithology.

  • Biogeochemistry of Groundwater beneath On-site Wastewater Systems in a Coastal Watershed
    Authors: Humphrey C.P. and O'Driscoll M.A.

    Abstract : The goal of this study was to determine if on-site wastewater system PO4 and coliform contributions to groundwater were significant enough to be included in water quality management plans for a coastal watershed. Monitoring wells were installed adjacent to 16 on-site systems in three different soil types (sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in Carteret County, North Carolina. Groundwater beneath on-site wastewater systems was collected and analyzed for coliform bacteria and PO4 and compared to septic effluent and background groundwater. Physical and chemical properties of groundwater including pH, electrical conductivity, and temperature were measured monthly for over 1 year (January 2007-February 2008). Data indicated that mean groundwater pH, PO4, coliform and electrical conductivity beneath on-site systems were typically elevated relative to background groundwater. Groundwater beneath on-site wastewater systems in sandy clay loam soils had the lowest mean PO4 and lowest median coliform concentrations (0.04 ± 0.03 mg/L and 1.02 x 104 cfu/100 mL). On-site systems in sand had the highest mean groundwater PO4 concentrations (2.46 ± 2.9 mg/L) and systems in sandy loam had the highest median groundwater coliform concentrations (2.21 x 104 cfu/100 mL). On-site wastewater systems in watersheds with sandy soils (> 77% sand and < 24% clay) can contribute significant concentrations of PO4 and coliform to groundwater and these contributions should be included in watershed management strategies for improving water quality.

  • Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Models for Pea (Pisum Sativum) in Mid Hill Zone-India
    Authors: Rohitashw Kumar, Vijay Shankar and Mahesh Kumar

    Abstract : Efficient irrigation water management requires a good quantification of evapotranspiration. Lysimeter was used to measure actual crop water use and local weather data were used to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The Kc values determined over the growing seasons varied from 0.5 to 1.15 for pea. The development of regionally based and growth-stage-speci?c Kc helps in irrigation management and provides precise water applications for this region. Six climatological models were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity. According to results the crop coefficient vary among locations and even among years, depending on soil evaporation (rainfall, irrigation), vapour pressure deficit, solar radiation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0).

  • Evaluation of Traits Related to Water Deficit Stress in Winter Rapeseed Cultivars
    Authors: Ghader Ghaffari, Mahmoud Toorchi, Saeid Aharizad, Mohamad-Reza Shakiba

    Abstract : In order to evaluate traits related to water deficit stress in winter rapeseed cultivars and to determine the tolerant and sensitive cultivars, an experiment was carried out in factorial based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications in the greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Tabriz-Iran University. First factor including 12 winter rapeseed cultivars, named: Zarfam, Okapi, Modena, Dexter, Olera, Licord, Arc-4, Elite, Opera, SLM046, Fornax, Orient; and the second factor include different levels of water stress that were: severe stress (50% FC), mild stress (75% FC) and well watered (100% FC) conditions. Water deficit stress was imposed from stem elongation to physiological maturity. Moreover, gypsum blocks were used to control the soil moist. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between cultivars and stress related to studied traits. Also, cultivars * stress interaction of proline content and seed yield was significant. The mean comparison of cultivars showed that SLM046 and Orient cultivars have the highest value, while Fornax and Olera cultivars have the lowest value. According to drought tolerance, MP, GMP and TOL indices were the most favorable indices. Also SLM046 and Orient are the most tolerant cultivars under severe stress and mild stress conditions respectively, while Fornax is the most sensitive cultivar in both conditions. The canonical correlation analysis under three environmental conditions showed significant correlation between canonical variables of physiological traits and yield related traits. The regression analysis in different stress levels demonstrated that the silique per plant and seed per silique has important role in increasing seed yield and these verities can help to choose cultivars. The cultivars grouping by cluster analysis showed that in middle stress levels SLM046 and Orient has been placed in same group and have higher value than overall mean. Moreover, Fornax and Olera cultivars hold lower value and are placed in another group. Other cultivars are settled in between.

  • Effect of NaCl Stress on Growth, Water Relations, Organic and Inorganic Osmolytes Accumulation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Lines
    Authors: Ahmad Heidari, Mahmoud Toorchi, Ali Bandehagh and Mohammad-Reza Shakiba

    Abstract : Salinity is one of the important abiotic stresses that affect growth, physiology, biochemistry and molecules of plants. In this study, response of 12 sunflower (H. annuus) lines to NaCl salinity (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) was investigated in hydroponic culture system. Plant growth parameters, height, third leaf water status, relative membrane permeability (RMP), organic and inorganic osmolytes were measured 30 days after salinity induced. Among the lines, R2, R56 and R50 showed significantly smaller reduction in growth parameters compared with B11, B353, B25 and B15 indicating that the former lines were more salt tolerant than the others. The line R2showed less reduction in height and this result revealed that high correlation between height and growth parameters. Relative water content (RWC) was decreased under salinity stress and the lines not differed significantly in this water relation attribute. Leaf water potential (LWP) was increased under salinity but the lines showed contrary relation with growth parameters. Appears that LWP not efficient method to measured water status under greenhouse conditions. RMP in tolerant lines was lowest compared with other lines. Also, glycine betaine (GB) was enhanced under salinity stress but non-significant differences were observed among the lines for this compatibility solute. It seems GB had less important role in sunflower due to it was lowest osmolyte that accumulated under salinity condition. In tolerant lines proline was more accumulated compared with sensitive lines and it was 1.94 times further. The relationship between Na and K cations indicate that at least in sunflower, accumulation of K+ dependent to Na+ influx. In other words, the lines that accumulate high Na+ was have more K+ content and vice versa. Also, in this study, the K+ content was increased under salinity but the K+/Na+ was decreased.

  • Olericulturiests Modified Age Old Practices under Open Access Land for Sustainability
    Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa

    Abstract : Presently, there are more than 70 individual vegetables commonly used by man. The present generations of olericulturiests although depend on high-yielding varieties and even genetically modified seeds are still following the package of practice of their forefathers. T he farmers of yester years secretly relied on only 0.5% to 10% of the chemical fertilizers. But mainly depended on organic manures like night soil, cattle dung, farmyard manure and decomposed vegetable wastes generated in their lands, which accounted for 90% of the inputs. The present day vegetable growers are contented to incorporate stabilized vermicompost in the quantities suggested by themselves based on 2-3 crop studies and are using the same at least in two split doses prior to sowing and/or transplantations and during the growth of the vegetable crops. The present study is the recorded data of some of the important commercial vegetable crops according to the olericulturiests cultivation practices and their methods of incorporation of chemical fertilizers and vermicompost. Vermicompost of required quantity was supplied to them. Eleven varieties of the vegetables grown are discussed as per the olericulturiests ways and means, for, they have found a sustainable production of vegetables throughout the year on a same piece of land with alternate and rotational vegetable cropping pattern within the vegetable families. Their cultivations have an array of stipulated practices for each and every vegetable in different seasons of the year. Their aim is to produce at least 60-70% harvests in the off seasons and 80 -100% harvests in the feasible seasons. This paper is a record of work for the commercial production of vegetables that has been practiced by the Olericulturiests of Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka State, India.


  • Potassium Releasing Capacity in Some Soils of Anantnag District of Kashmir
    Authors: Subhash Chand and Tahir Ali

    Abstract : The potassium releasing capacity of fifteen soil samples of Anantnag district of Kashmir were assessed by using five chemical extractants. The decreasing order of potassium release by the different chemical extractants in the soils was 1M HNO3 > 0.01 N HCl--12 extractions>0.01 N HCl--9 extractions> 0.3 N NaTPB-16 hours > 0.01N HCl 3 extractions> 1.38N H2SO4=0.01N HCl-1 extractions> % K saturation. The K released by 1M HNO3 was significantly correlated with 1.38N H2SO4 (0.995**) and 10.28 N H2SO4 (0.996**) .The significant correlations among different form of K in Anantnag soils indicate the various K pools (exchangeable=Non-exchangeable) for proper K fertilizer management. The potassium status in Anantnag soils was variable.

  • Average Annual Global Temperature and Cyclonic Disturbance over the North Indian Ocean
    Authors: R. Samuel Selvaraj and R.Uma

    Abstract : Tropical Cyclone activities over the North Indian Ocean (comprising Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) constitute one of the major natural disasters of our country. To understand the Tropical Cyclonic activities, estimations of their frequencies are necessary. In this study, the Average Annual Global Temperature and Cyclonic disturbance that includes Depression, Cyclonic Storm and Severe Cyclonic Storm over the North Indian Ocean has been analysed using Spearman Rank Correlation technique. Tropical Cyclone over the North Indian Ocean has decreased to some extent due to the increase in global temperature.

  • Solar Insolation at Chennai during the 23rd Solar cycle
    Authors: Samuel Selvaraj .R and Sivamadhavi .V

    Abstract : The Solar irradiance is treated as a constant (solar constant) for many practical purposes. But, actually it varies by a small amount due to various causes. The objective of this paper is to emphasize the variations produced in the total (global) radiation on a horizontal surface due to the changes in the Sun Spot Number. The region considered is Chennai, the Capital city of Tamil Nadu. We have done the data analysis during the 23rd solar cycle, which began in May, 1996 and ended in December, 2008. This solar cycle lasted for about 12.6 year. The monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface at Chennai has been calculated for this period without and with the effect of the changes in the sunspot number. The estimated value including the effect of sunspot number agrees better with the measured value. The variation produced in the monthly mean daily global radiation on a horizontal surface amounts to about 0.02%.

  • Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Lysine and Linoleic Acid Content of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) under Temperate conditions
    Authors: Aziz M. A., Tahir Ali, M.A Bhat, Amees T. Aezum and S. Sheeraz Mahdi

    Abstract : A field experiment was conducted at KVK, Srinagar during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the "Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management for Soybean (Glycine max L.) Under Temperate Conditions". The experiment was laid out under 18 treatment combinations viz., three levels of recommended inorganic fertilizers (50, 75 and 100% RD), three levels of organic manures (control, FYM 10 t ha-1 and Dalweed 10 t ha-1) and two levels of biofertilizers (control and dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB) in randomised complete block design with three replications. Lysine content was found superior with application of 75% recommended inorganic fertilizers over other levels, Linoleic acid content increased with increasing levels of recommended inorganic fertilizers. Among organics FYM (10 t ha-1) yielded significantly superior results for seed quality than Dalweed (10 t ha-1). Dual inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB showed significantly superior seed quality over control.