Volume 1, Issue 2

In this issue:


  • Effects of Vitamin C on Lead Induced Developing Thymus in Mice: A review
    Authors: Sharma R. and Kantwa S. M

    Abstract : The present review deals with effects of vitamin C on lead intoxicated developing thymus in mice .In the world of environmental health and medicine, lead exposure remains one of the most important problems in terms of prevalence of exposure and public health impact. Previous research has shown that every level of lead exposure is dangerous to animals and humans. Thus lead toxicity continues to be a leading environmental issue. Little is known about the persistent Immunotoxic effect of Pb when administered during specific stages of embryonic development. A variety of toxic effects caused by lead exposure during gestation and lactation have been reported in human and animal studies. Our immune system is our most powerful weapon against disease. Fetal and early postnatal life represents critical periods in vertebrate immune system development. Disruption of such development by Immunotoxic chemical exposure has been widely described in experimental animal model. The available animal data suggest the potential immune function in humans exposed immunotoxicants during fetal and early postnatal life. Administration of vitamin C results in improvement in several components of human immune response. Vitamin C regulates the immune system because of its antioxidant properties and its role in collagen synthesis required for stabilization of epithelial barriers. It plays a role in phagocytic function and has an immunostimulatory effect on lymphocyte cells. Limited information is available regarding the possibility of inhibited postnatal immune capacity in humans as a result of pre and postnatal immunotoxicant exposure. To fulfill this lacuna an attempt has been taken to gather the significant information on deformities in immune system due to immunotoxicant exposure during pre and postnatal development.

  • Overview of Subsurface Constructed Wetlands Application in Tropical Climates
    Authors: Siti Haryani Chek Rani, Mohd. Fadhil Md. Din, Mohd. Badruddin Mohd Yusof and Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan

    Abstract : Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) have specific capacity to absorb and retain particulate matters, nutrients and other pollutants which enters water bodies through surface runoff, domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater and also from plantations. However, as the field becomes more relevant towards sustainability environment, the SFCW study is often significant for developing countries with tropical climates where the zones are warm and humid weather in all years. SFCW showed an increase rate of contaminant up-take in warmer climates; therefore this treatment has been expected to operate more efficiently in tropical regions. SFCW recent technologies are also excellent in the utilisation of natural processes and the high process stability which contributing a high nutrient capturing capacity. Furthermore, the systems are simple to construct and less expensive option than aquatic plant systems which is a benefit in many developing countries. Accordingly, this paper highlights some SFCW applications on nutrients capturing capabilities (nitrogen and phosphorus), general view on construction, operation and maintenance of the SFCW and vegetation selection for start-up. In addition, application of different wastewater types such as landfill leachate, domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater are also discussed in brief. Future considerations in choosing appropriate technology aspect of wetlands applications such geographic information system (GIS), compost material and bio-particle are highlighted.

  • A Review on Translocation and Management of Genetic Resources of Commercially Important Aquaculture Finfishes
    Authors: Adarsha H. S., Prabhudeva K. N. and Rajanna K. B.

    Abstract : Carps, Salmonids, Nile tilapia and Clariids constitute about 90 % of total finfish aquaculture production and cultured in different territorial regions around the world. Even though some of the new introductions haven't been successful, aquaculture production of these species stretched beyond their native territories and resulted in many folds due to sheer new introduction. In Europe, genetic resources of newly introduced species are being relatively well managed in comparison with African and Asian countries. Though, Access and Benefit Sharing system (ABS) clearly guides new translocations and resolve the issue of benefit sharing between various stakeholders, these guidelines are often found to be ignored. Introduction of alien species to any environment poses threat to the integrity of ecology, biodiversity and genetic intrusion with wild stock. Giving adequate importance to proper management of genetic resources is one of the sustainable approaches to restore the ecological equilibrium.

  • Economics, Formulation Techniques and Properties of Biodiesel: A Review
    Authors: Mathur Y. B., Poonia M. P. and Jethoo A. S.

    Abstract : Due to limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concern, there has been improved focus on vegetable oils and biodiesel fuel as an alternative source of energy. Governments across the world are injecting huge amount of money into the development of this sector in an attempt to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels. However, the alternative diesel fuels must be technically and environmentally acceptable, and economically competitive. From the viewpoint of these requirements, triglycerides and their derivatives may be considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels. One of the main problems of vegetable oil use in diesel engine is their higher kinematic viscosity due to which problems occur in pumping and atomization, ring-sticking, carbon deposits on the piston, cylinder head, ring grooves, etc. Hence, straight vegetable oils have to be modified to bring their combustion related properties closer to diesel. This fuel modification is mainly aimed at reducing the viscosity in order to get rid of flow/ atomization related problems. In the present work, efforts have been made to understand and compile the outcome of researches on economics of biodiesel fuel, issues associated with use of vegetable oil in diesel engine by using some well known techniques available to overcome higher viscosity related problems for making them compatible with the hydrocarbon-based diesel and biodiesel fuel properties.


  • Cotton Dyeing with Natural Dye Extracted from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel
    Authors: Kulkarni S.S., Gokhale A.V, Bodake U.M, Pathade G.R.

    Abstract : Use of natural dyes has increased several folds in the past few years due to the eco-friendly approach of the people. This paper concerns with the purification of natural dyestuff extracted from an abundantly occurring plant 'Punica granatum'. The main coloring agent in the pomegranate peel is granatonine which is present in the alkaloid form N-methyl granatonine. Solvent extraction method was used for the extraction of the dye. The pomegranate peel dye was used for dyeing of scoured cotton cloth using two mordants-copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate in the ratios 1:1, 1:3, 3:1. Dyeing along with mordanting techniques which included pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post mordanting was carried out. Study about fastness tests of dyed clothes was undertaken. Large range of shades was obtained because of varying mordant ratios and combinations. The production cost of the pomegranate peel dye was estimated.

  • Characterization of Particulate Matters and Volatile Organic Compounds in the Ambient Environment of Open Dump Sites
    Authors: Obuli P. Karthikeyan, S. Murugesan, Kurian Joseph, Ligy Philip

    Abstract : Green house gas (GHGs) and particulate emissions are considered as one of the major issues in recent years from municipal solid waste dumping sites. Open burning is also very common, which emits plenty of volatile organic compounds and pose serious threat to the associated environment. Hence, characterization of air born pollutants from such dumping environment is necessary at this juncture to develop stringent regulatory rules in developing countries. Therefore, the study objective considered to characterize the ambient air samples from two municipal solid waste dumpsites viz., Kodungaiyur and Perungudi in Chennai during two different seasons. The characterization study showed that dust, black carbon, ammonia, sulphate and nitrate were the major species of PM10 and PM2.5. Major metal ions like Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were also identified in the particulates. Concentrations of particulates were observed to be high during the summer as compared to that of monsoon period in both the dumpsites. The respirable particulate matter in air samples varied widely between 211 µg/m3 and 900 µg/m3, and exceeding the upper limits of 150 µg/m3 standards prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), as well as United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). The concentrations NOx is much higher than SOx in Kodungaiyur samples. The ambient air samples were also contained hazardous organic compounds such as diethyl phthalate, decane, dodecane, octane, nonane, methenamine, cyclobutane, carbon disulfide and acetone diperoxide.

  • Spatial Analysis of Composition and Species Interactions with Temporal Variation of Zooplankton Community of Shallow Tropical Lake: Thol Bird Sanctuary, India
    Authors: Nirmal Kumar J. I., Verma Yamini and Rita N. Kumar

    Abstract : Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution of the zooplankton in a tropical Man-made reservoir- Thol Bird Sanctuary were investigated for two consecutive years from September 2007 to August 2009. The zooplankton was sampled at two different zones of Thol wetland located 23o15'N and 72o30'E near Ahmedabad city of Gujarat state, India. Sixteen species of Rotifers rich in number of individuals, density were dominant throughout the seasons in two sampling sites among the other groups. The main species were Polyarthra vulgaris, Keratella tropica, K. cochlearis and Brachionus forficula. Eleven species of Cladocera were more abundant in spring with the occurrence of Daphnia sp. and Macrothrix rosea at site 1 (feeder canal of the lake). Whereas, Diaphanosoma birgei, the most abundant Cladoceran, mainly occurred at site 2 (littoral zone of the lake). Peaks of tinted Protozoan were observed at site 1 during winter and spring. Variation in spatial distribution was noticeable, the abundance of zooplankton was significantly higher (P< 0.05) at the site 2 than the site 1 as a result of preponderance of the small Rotifers and Cladocerans particularly Bosmina longirostris. The analysis of one way ANNOVA between the sites for the first year showed the F? (5.84) value is greater than critical F value (4.30), whereas in the second year P' value (0.0005) is lesser than alpha (α) value 0.05.

  • Potential of Cyperus papyrus in Yard-Scale Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Cameroon
    Authors: Fonkou Theophile, Ivo Balock Sako, Lekeufack Martin, Mekontso Tankoua Fabrice and Amougou Akoa

    Abstract : The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of Cyperus papyrus in horizontal flow constructed wetlands used for domestic wastewater treatment. Two system configurations were used: the horizontal surface flow (HSF) and the horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Each wetland was continuously fed by primarily treated wastewater, at an average organic loading rate of 106 kg BOD/ha-d. Growth and productivity of the plant were assessed alongside the reduction of physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water in both wetland configurations. Progressive increase in the plant density, shoot length and stem diameter were observed. Above-ground and underground biomasses of 41 and 90 tonnes of dry weight/ha/year respectively were estimated. The reduction of several physicochemical parameters and that of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci were not significantly different in the vegetated as compare to the non vegetated control wetlands in both HSSF and HSF configurations. The HSF was nevertheless more efficient in the removal of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci as compared to the HSSF. The rate of absorption of ammonia nitrogen by C. papyrus was estimated to about 1.11 g/m2/d in the HSSF and 2.0 g/m2/d in the HSF wetlands, while that of nitrate nitrogen was estimated to about 0.35 g/m2/d and 0.57 g/m2/d respectively.

  • Transformation of Wet Garbage of Indian Urbanites at Household Level
    Authors: Sunitha N. Seenappa

    Abstract : Human activities of all sorts generate waste and waste has to be managed properly. An illusion that anyone can think of is to throw the accumulated waste away from homes to keep clean and tidy within their dwellings. The objective of house-hold management of waste is to transform the wet/organic waste/garbage into resourceful compost by providing feasible, arable environment for microbial (aerobic) and compost earthworm activities. Since several decades several methods/protocols has been laid for, yet an easiest ways and means is not yet a near-reach of a kitchen worker. The method that has been mentioned in the current research is simpler, instantaneous and a natural aerator system that the waste itself adopts, is beyond imagination and one can keep their waste in the corner of one's kitchen which is organic waste container without obnoxious odor, without fly menace and without leachate but emancipate a pleasant fruity odor/ after rain smell - a proof of healthy composting activity that will be set within 24hrs. The only another raw material (can be called as leachate absorbing raw material - LARM) that one need to outsource is coirpith/cocopeat from coir industry available in the Southern states of India and bagasse from sugarcane factories in the North-Western states of India and jute waste from Eastern parts of India. In the present study as model two sets of wet garbage generated in urban family has been taken up. Four member family and a ten member family work have been shown to prove the vermicomposting activities throughout the year, irrespective of season in a simpler, semi-scientific manner.

  • Phytoremediation of Trace Metals in Shadawanka Stream of Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria
    Authors: Usman O.A. Shuaibu and Abdus-Salam Nasiru

    Abstract : Environment has great impact on our health through the food we eat, the water we drink and the air we breathe. The number of contaminants entering the environment has increased greatly in Nigeria in recent times and this is due to increasing population, urbanization, industrialization, modern agricultural practices and transportation activities. Major among these contaminants are heavy metals which are potential health hazard to the populace and 60- 80% of heavy metal toxins found in human bodies were the results of consuming contaminated food and water rather than through air pollution. Contaminants in soil or water environment could be cleaned up using plants. The Shadawanka stream is a major stream in the heart of Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria used for domestic, irrigation and for aquatic organisms. Heavy metal accumulation studies in Nymphaea lotus (Water lily) were carried out from eight different locations along the stream using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric technique in the months of April-June 2003. The levels obtained for the metals were in the range of 79.80- 130.20mg/100g for Zinc, 50.19- 69.90mg/100g for Lead, 53.60- 58.20mg/100g for Iron and 7.21- 8.9mg/100g for Cadmium. The results showed that the plant has high tendency to selectively bioaccumulate Zinc and Lead thus suggesting that it could be used to monitor Zinc and Lead levels in the stream. The present study indicates that the plant has high potential to selectively uptake lead and zinc faster than cadmium and iron in the stream.

  • Production of Vermicompost from Temple Waste (Nirmalya): A Case Study
    Authors: Gurav M. V. and Pathade G. R.

    Abstract : Vermicomposting is the phenomenon of compost formation by earthworms. Earthworms play an important role in the cycling of plant nutrients, turnover the organic matter and maintain the soil structure. The temple wastes consist of vegetable material (mainly flowers, leaves, fruits, sugar, jaggery etc.), milk and milk products, grains and water most of which are biodegradable and contain elements required for growth of microorganisms and the temple wastes are released in the water bodies or dumped at the available places of land which creates severe environmental pollution and health hazards, hence it was thought to attempt use temple waste for ecofriendly treatment methods like Biomethanation and vermicomposting. The effluent of biomethanation upon mixing with biodegradable organic solids serves as good raw material for vermicomposting. In the present studies vermicomposting, the effluent from biogas digester (biomethanation) run on Ganesh temple waste (Sangli, Maharashtra) was admixed with temple waste solids and cattle dung and after partial the decomposition for 30 days at 30Oc, it was used to fill up 2 kg capacity plastic tubs and subjected for optimization of parameters like moisture content, particle size, pH of material and temperature of vermicomposting using Eudrilus eugeniae earth worm species. It was found that 25oC temperature, pH 8.0, 1-2mm particle size and 80% moisture content were optimum parameters of vermicomposting. It was further found that vermicompost obtained by above method was rich in percent carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium content i.e. 28, 1.58, 0.33 and 0.28, respectively. The pot culture studies using five flowering plants (Gulab, Jaswand and Mogra varieties) of the test set (using prepared vermicompost as fertilizer) used in the studies showed good enhancement of growth in terms of height, flowering time as well as number of flowers produced as compared to control sets(without use of vermicompost as fertilizer). Thus, vermicomposting of temple waste is an excellent and ecofriendly method of temple waste management.

  • A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Bore Well Chemistry Data-Nashik and Niphad Taluka of Maharashtra, India
    Authors: Kanade S. B. and Gaikwad V. B.

    Abstract : Pearson correlation matrix, Hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis (PCA) were simultaneously applied to groundwater hydro chemical data of 31 bore well locations in post monsoon 2007 from Nashik and Nipahd taluka. Using the Kaiser criterion, principle component (PC) was extracted from the data and rotated using varimax normalization, for 31 locations. The combined use of both technique resulted in more reliable interpretation of the hydrochemistry. From the analysis, concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium ( Na), chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3) at most of the sampling stations in agricultural area having higher values. Computational analysis of data set of hydro chemical constituents in the groundwater suggests that the aquifer is mainly controlled by Cl, Na, EC and TDS; there is strong positive relationship between TDS - EC, TDS- Cl, TDS - TH and TDS - Na. It indicates that, there is strong evidence of anthropogenic activities on major ions present in the groundwater and weathering of sodium, potassium minerals in the study area. The high Na and Cl contents detected in certain samples may suggest the dissolution of chloride salts. The dissolution of halite in water release equal concentrations of Na and Cl into the solution.

  • Comparison of the Water Quality of Two Aquifers Established in Different Development Zones of Mexico
    Authors: Esperanza Robles, Elizabeth Ramirez, Blanca Martinez, Maria de Guadalupe Sainz and Maria Elena Gonzalez

    Abstract : The rapid growth of urban areas has further affected groundwater quality due to over-exploitation of resources and improper waste disposal practices. The over-exploitation of aquifers, which reduces natural recharge due to high urbanization and anthropogenic activities, has caused a decrease in groundwater quality in many areas. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of the Mexico City and Tepalcingo-Axochiapan, Morelos aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected every two months for one year. The bacteriological and physicochemical parameters were analyzed in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The Tepalcingo-Axochiapan, Morelos aquifer had higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in most wells and samplings than the Mexico City aquifer. Fecal coliform values of the two aquifers were lower than the maximum permissible limit indicated in the Mexican Ecological Criteria of Water Quality (1000 colony forming units (CFU)/100 ml of fecal coliforms) for public supply sources. Average values of electrical conductivity and dissolved solids in the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer were higher than average values from the Mexico City aquifer. ANOVA analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) only for hardness and sulfates, they were the physicochemical parameters that showed the biggest difference between the two aquifers, the concentrations of both parameters being higher in the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer than in the Mexico City aquifer. In general, the average values of the physicochemical parameters were below the maximum permissible limits indicated in the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-127-SSA1-1994) for drinking water.


  • Analysis of Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in Dwellings in Mitrovica, Kosova
    Authors: Besim Xhafa, Theodhor Karaja, Sadik Bekteshi, Skender Kabashi and Gezim Hodolli

    Abstract : The seasonal variation analysis of indoor radon concentration has been carried out in selected public buildings in Mitrovica. Measurements were performed with Continuous Radon Monitor Model CRM-510. Mitrovica has been chosen for this study since it is a post-industrial town in which many former industrial objects are been used for other public purposes. According to the findings of this study the estimated annual average indoor radon concentration in the houses surveyed depend on season and ranges from 184.3 Bqm?3 to 299.4 Bqm?3. Nevertheless, in particular, higher values of radon concentration have been found in Battery Factory which range from 450.4 Bqm?3 to 660.2 Bqm?3. The season/annual ratios for different type of dwellings varied from 1.01 to 1.9. The mean annual estimated effective dose received by the residents of the studied locations was estimated to be 1.60 mSvy-1. to 4.01 mSvy?1. The annual estimated effective dose is close to the recommended action level.

  • Environmentally Safe Renewable Energy Technology Using Sugar Cane
    Author: Jadhav R. T.

    Abstract : Energy and environment are the two basic components of the new global of sustainable development. The story of the energy starts with wood, wood came to be replaced by coal and coal by oil only partially. Now a stage appears to have been reached when oil may also have to be substituted by Biomass. Sugar industry is one of the most important industries, playing vital role in the economic development of the nation and also a most advanced processing industry in the agricultural sector in India. After processing for cane sugar, the precipitate down at the bottom of the clarifier is called press mud, otherwise known as sugar cane mud, Mostly the cane leaves are supposed to be nuisance to the farmers and are so called waste residues. The bagasse and cane leaves are good candidates for gasification.

  • Fractal Dimension Analysis of Northeast Monsoon of Tamil Nadu
    Authors: Tamil Selvi S., Samuel Selvaraj R.

    Abstract : Analysis of the general rainfall trend is vital for the purpose of forecasting and in identifying the changes and impacts that are very crucial for an agro-based economy like the one of Tamil Nadu. Northeast monsoon data of Tamil Nadu is used for fractal dimension analysis using Hurst exponent method. The Hurst exponent (H) is a statistical measure used to classify time series. It is found that the behavior of Northeast monsoon rainfall in Tamil Nadu is anti-persistent, since the value of fractal dimension (D) is 1.7895.


  • Challenges of Climate Change Vis-A-Vis Tactic for Cooling the Earth
    Authors: Subhash Chand and Rohitash Kumar

    Abstract : Climate change is a world wide reality discussed and debated at every corner of scientific, political and economical forms. However, it can be tackle, if timely mitigation practices widely adopted for cooling the earth. There is a need to develop a common sense in our daily life for saving the energy (light, fuel, water, air) for future use. Common adoptable and recommended practices have a substantial contribution in cooling the earth and making congenial environment for human-plant-lives.