Abstract : Metagenomics is an applied science that deals with throughput analysis of Environmental Genomic isolates. Advances in genomic sequencing technologies such as parallel sequencing and sequence analysis methods have contributed most in foundation of this field. Metagenomics techniques have broad perspectives in field of Ecological Biotechnology. Its potential applications in in-situ restoration of ecosystems, designing strategies for bioremediation and in monitoring biodetereoration have come to the edge. In this review, we have reviewed current developments in metagenomics methodology with respect to applications in the field of ecological biotechnology and environmental biotechnologies.
Abstract : Data for 220Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scare due to the general perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. The Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai, India has completed a countrywide monitoring program of 220Rn along with 222Rn in the dwellings using 222Rn/220Rn discriminating Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) based dosimeter systems with large participation of research groups from different parts of the country. Details about measurement, standardization of dosimeters and evaluation of the inhalation dose is presented in this paper. Results are compared with the values reported in literature for dwellings as well as in high background radiation areas.
Abstract : Health of human, soil, water and plant are integral part of a sustainable ecosystem. Nitrogen is a major constituent of the earth's atmosphere and occurs in different gaseous forms such as elemental nitrogen, nitrate and ammonia. Natural reactions of atmospheric nitrogen with rainwater result in the formation of nitrate and ammonium ions. While nitrate is a common nitrogenous compound due to natural processes of the nitrogen cycle and nowadays anthropogenic sources have greatly increased the nitrate concentration, particularly in groundwater. The largest anthropogenic sources are septic tanks, application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers to turfgrass and agricultural processes. Levels of nitrates in groundwater in some instances are above the safe levels proposed by the EPA and thus pose a threat to human health. Particularly in rural, private wells, incidence of methemoglobinemia appears to be the result of high nitrate levels. Methemoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome robs the blood cells of their ability to carry oxygen. Due to the detrimental biological effects, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching and high concentrations. Treatment through ion-exchange and other processes can rehabilitate already contaminated water, while prevention, such as reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can lower the influx of nitrates.
Abstract : Salinity is a major problem throughout the world. The present work was carried out on seventy samples collected from Zian and Qalabshu. Analysis carried out of selected ten drainage and four subsoil water samples represent the water resources of the study area. Aim of the present work was to suggest the best and scientific method of utilization and conservation of soil and water for the future development in the area. The results showed that, samples of El-Nil canal fall in high saline water class. Though such water is permissible for irrigation but may cause a harmful effect on crops. It may be suitable for plants of moderate tolerance. Samples of El-Sokar factory canal at the front of factory gate, rejection area of drain-2-station and suction area of drain-2-station, El-Gamaiat canal and subsoil-1 fall in very high saline class which is of doubtful quality for irrigation. Samples of El-Sokar factory canal 1km away from factory gate, immersed area by water, El-Moheet drain and subsoil samples fall in the excessive saline water class which is of unsuitable quality for irrigation. The depth to water in the area ranges between 75 cm and 175 cm. The closeness of the subsoil water to the ground surface is harmful to the crop yield in the agricultural areas. To avoid the serious problem of salinity, the subsoil water has to be lowered either horizontally by relatively deep surface drains or vertically dewatering from the wells.
Abstract : An evaporative cooler produces effective cooling by combining a natural process - water evaporation with a simple, reliable air-moving system Evaporative cooling is the most economical and effective means of refrigeration and air cooling since its inception particularly in the areas where climatic conditions are hot and dry. In Rajasthan (India), during summer Dry Bulb Temperature (DBT) of air may reach up to 48 ?C while relative humidity stays below 50%. During present study efforts were made to make evaporative cooling system more versatile. In the process of study a cooler cum refrigerator has been developed which can be utilized for the purpose of air cooling, drinking water cooling viz. a viz. storing the vegetables and medicines without altering the performance of desert cooler. The energy saving by doing so is saved more than 30 W. A small size desert cooler can cool more than 24 liter water per day up to the Wet Bulb Temperature (WBT) of outside air as well as could store vegetables for more than five days.
Abstract : Groundwater is the major source of drinking water and dietary fluoride in human beings in rural as well as urban areas throughout the world. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the fluoride and other water quality parameters in the ground water of Dabwali town of Sirsa district of Haryana, India. A total of fifty two groundwater samples were randomly collected at different depths from tube wells and hand pumps. The fluoride content in underground water is determined by SPADANS method. From the study it was observed that Dabwali is highly fluoride endemic area. The results showed that fluoride concentration in the ground water of Dabwali ranges from 0.90-34.50 mg/l with a mean of 2.20 ± 18.13 mg/l. Mostly people use groundwater for domestic and irrigation purpose. Therefore, the intake of fluoride concentration is very high as people using groundwater without any prior treatment. The results suggest that the groundwater should be used by the residents only after defluoridation.
Abstract : Environmental audit is a very effective management tool, which is designed and conducted to provide information on practices which differ to the current procedures and to exercise effective management of the established system. The sugar industry plays a very important role in India's national economy. As all stages of sugar production are water intensive and discharging wastewater containing high level of oil, suspended solids, organic matter and chemicals and therefore the sugar industry is one of the most water polluting industries. Therefore conducting 'Environmental Audit' in a sugar factory is no longer an option but a sound precaution and a proactive measure in today's heavily regulated environment. Careful and watchful audit offer prospects for improvement, perfection and achievement of goals. The audit is carried out in four steps and the final report is prepared and suggestions are given. This paper reviews on Environmental Audit programme in a sugar factory of Kolhapur district of Maharashtra (India).
Abstract : The synthetic dyes which are of wide commercial importance cause severe atmospheric and environmental pollution. The present investigation was carried out to extract natural dye from green chili (Capsicum annum).The main coloring component in chili is oleoresin. The dye was extracted using solvent extraction method. A mordant is a substance used to set dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye which then attaches to the fabric. Two mordants - copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate were used in ratios 1:1, 1:3, 3:1.100% scoured cotton cloth was used for dyeing by three different techniques-pre mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post mordanting. Fastness is the ability of a dye to remain permanent and not run or fade. Color fastness studies on the dyed cloth were undertaken. The mordants helped in fixing the dye to the fabric as well as improve the fastness properties of the dyed cloth. Different shades of yellow were obtained from the dye extracted from chili skin. These different shades are obtained from a single dye using the two mordants in different ratios. Good light fastness, good rub fastness and moderate wash fastness was observed in fabrics dyed with the dye extracted from Green chili.
Abstract : The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications for the ecofriendly development of novel technologies. Generally, nanoparticles are prepared by a variety of chemical methods which are not environmentally friendly. Present study reported a fast, convenient and intracellular method for the synthesis of manganese and zinc nanoparticles by reducing Manganese sulphate and Zinc sulphate with the help of Streptomyces sp. HBUM171191. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by using UV- Vis Spectrophotometer. The morphology of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM). The size of MnSO4 and ZnSO4 was ranges from 10 to 20nm.
Abstract : Methylene blue (MB) adsorption from an aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shell has been studied experimentally using batch adsorption method. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were investigated as a function of initial dye concentration and contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to examine the experimental data of different initial concentrations. Kinetics studies indicated that the adsorption followed pseudo -second order reaction. The high correlation coefficient of intraparticle diffusion model proves the pore diffusion plays a significant role for the adsorption of MB onto CSAC. Equilibrium data was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of Cocoa shell activated carbon (CSAC) was found to be 37.03 mg/g by using Langmuir model equation. On the basis of experimental results and the model parameters, it can be inferred that the activated carbon prepared from cocoa shell was effective for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.
Abstract : The present study was conducted on the leachate and groundwater samples collected from the Valmikinagar dumpsite and the solid waste collected from the scrap houses of Nanded city. The study examines basic characteristics of the leachate and groundwater samples near dumpsite. Concentration level of contaminants was studied on daily and monthly basis. Solid waste was also studied with references to collection, sorting and recycling from different areas of the scrap houses of the city. The leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Walmiki Nagar solid waste dumping site. The leachate sample showed slightly acidic pH while groundwater samples showed neutral pH from the solid waste dumping site. The leachate sample showed higher electrical conductivity while groundwater sample showed slightly higher than the permissible limit. The leachate sample falls under very hard category while groundwater sample falls under hard water class. The leachate sample showed very high calcium content than the permissible limit. Similarly, the chloride content of both the samples was higher than desirable limit. The study also had a focus on the glass, paper, plastic, iron, cartoon waste collection, segregation and transportation for recycling.
Abstract : Anemia is a public health problem and the primary cause of it is dietary deficiency though sometimes genetic abnormalities of hemoglobin synthesis and parasitic infections are the added reasons. In the present investigation a total of twenty five blood samples of teen-aged girls (14-18 yrs) were collected from the hospital of health science department situated at Ambegaon, Pune for the detection of iron-deficiency anemia for the purpose of improvement of reproductive health of adolescence girls in rural area. The objective of the studies is to bring awareness of iron status among rural adolescent girls to promote their maternal as well as child health. Iron deficiency anemia was detected in 43% (38% moderate, 5% severe and no mild anemia) of the tested population by the indicators (Hemoglobin, Serum iron, TIBC and Transferrin) generally used for assessment of anemia. Complete blood count (CBC) revealed significant reduction (P>.01) in RBC count, no changes in WBC count and significant increase in Platelets count (P> 0.01-Thrombocytosis noticed). Result indicates some relationship of iron deficiency anemia to thrombopoiesis. Improved diet and iron supplement along with vitamin A and C (needed for absorption of iron) should be implemented to control iron deficiency anemia in rural area. The results revealed were as: Haemoglobin (↓), MCV (↓), MCH (↓), MCHC (↓), serum iron (↓), TIBC (↓), transferrin saturation (↓), Platelet count (↓).